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Pathogens 2019, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8010007

Molecular Characterisation of Equine Herpesvirus 1 Isolates from Cases of Abortion, Respiratory and Neurological Disease in Ireland between 1990 and 2017

1
Virology Unit, The Irish Equine Centre, Johnstown, Naas, Co. Kildare W91 RH93, Ireland
2
Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
3
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick, Limerick V94 T9PX, Ireland
4
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick V94 T9PX, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Pathogens)
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Abstract

Multiple locus typing based on sequencing heterologous regions in 26 open reading frames (ORFs) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) strains Ab4 and V592 was used to characterise 272 EHV-1 isolates from 238 outbreaks of abortion, respiratory or neurological disease over a 28-year period. The analysis grouped the 272 viruses into at least 10 of the 13 unique long region (UL) clades previously recognised. Viruses from the same outbreak had identical multi-locus profiles. Sequencing of the ORF68 region of EHV-1 isolates from 222 outbreaks established a divergence into seven groups and network analysis demonstrated that Irish genotypes were not geographically restricted but clustered with viruses from all over the world. Multi-locus analysis proved a more comprehensive method of strain typing than ORF68 sequencing. It was demonstrated that when interpreted in combination with epidemiological data, this type of analysis has a potential role in tracking virus between premises and therefore in the implementation of targeted control measures. Viruses from 31 of 238 outbreaks analysed had the proposed ORF30 G2254/D752 neuropathogenic marker. There was a statistically significant association between viruses of the G2254/D752 genotype and both neurological disease and hypervirulence as defined by outbreaks involving multiple abortion or neurological cases. The association of neurological disease in those with the G2254/D752 genotype was estimated as 27 times greater than in those with the A2254/N752 genotype. View Full-Text
Keywords: EHV-1; multi-locus typing; ORF68; neuropathogenic marker EHV-1; multi-locus typing; ORF68; neuropathogenic marker
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Garvey, M.; Lyons, R.; Hector, R.D.; Walsh, C.; Arkins, S.; Cullinane, A. Molecular Characterisation of Equine Herpesvirus 1 Isolates from Cases of Abortion, Respiratory and Neurological Disease in Ireland between 1990 and 2017. Pathogens 2019, 8, 7.

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