Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Properties of Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus Capsular Polysaccharides on the Humoral Response
Previous Article in Journal
Natural Pathogen Control Chemistry to Replace Toxic Treatment of Microbes and Biofilm in Cooling Towers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Pathogens 2017, 6(2), 15;

Application of Hydrogen Peroxide as an Innovative Method of Treatment for Legionella Control in a Hospital Water Network

Department Translational Research, N.T.M.S., University of Pisa, via S. Zeno 35-37, 56127 Pisa, Italy
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56127 Pisa, Italy
Azienda USL6 Livorno, via Forlanini 26, 57125 Piombino, Livorno, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Claudiu T. Supuran and Lawrence S. Young
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogen Legionella pneumophila)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1314 KB, uploaded 17 April 2017]   |  


Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide (HP) use as a disinfectant in the hospital water network for the control of Legionella spp. colonization. Methods: Following the detection of high levels of Legionella contamination in a 136-bed general hospital water network, an HP treatment of the hot water supply (25 mg/L) was adopted. During a period of 34 months, the effectiveness of HP on Legionella colonization was assessed. Legionella was isolated in accordance with ISO-11731 and identification was carried out by sequencing of the mip gene. Results: Before HP treatment, L. pneumophila sg 2–15 was isolated in all sites with a mean count of 9950 ± 8279 cfu/L. After one-month of HP treatment, we observed the disappearance of L. pneumophila 2–15, however other Legionella species previously not seen were found; Legionella pneumophila 1 was isolated in one out of four sampling sites (2000 cfu/L) and other non-pneumophila species were present in all sites (mean load 3000 ± 2887 cfu/L). Starting from September 2013, HP treatment was modified by adding food-grade polyphosphates, and in the following months, we observed a progressive reduction of the mean load of all species (p < 0.05), resulting in substantial disappearance of Legionella colonization. Conclusion: Hydrogen peroxide demonstrated good efficacy in controlling Legionella. Although in the initial phases of treatment it appeared unable to eliminate all Legionella species, by maintaining HP levels at 25 mg/L and adding food-grade polyphosphates, a progressive and complete control of colonization was obtained. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogen peroxide; Legionella; hospital; disinfection hydrogen peroxide; Legionella; hospital; disinfection

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Casini, B.; Aquino, F.; Totaro, M.; Miccoli, M.; Galli, I.; Manfredini, L.; Giustarini, C.; Costa, A.L.; Tuvo, B.; Valentini, P.; Privitera, G.; Baggiani, A. Application of Hydrogen Peroxide as an Innovative Method of Treatment for Legionella Control in a Hospital Water Network. Pathogens 2017, 6, 15.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Pathogens EISSN 2076-0817 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top