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Pathogens 2015, 4(1), 111-136;

Biofilms in Infections of the Eye

Departments of Ophthalmology, Microbiology and Immunology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02114 USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gianfranco Donelli
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 12 March 2015 / Accepted: 13 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm-Based Nosocomial Infections)
PDF [809 KB, uploaded 23 March 2015]


The ability to form biofilms in a variety of environments is a common trait of bacteria, and may represent one of the earliest defenses against predation. Biofilms are multicellular communities usually held together by a polymeric matrix, ranging from capsular material to cell lysate. In a structure that imposes diffusion limits, environmental microgradients arise to which individual bacteria adapt their physiologies, resulting in the gamut of physiological diversity. Additionally, the proximity of cells within the biofilm creates the opportunity for coordinated behaviors through cell–cell communication using diffusible signals, the most well documented being quorum sensing. Biofilms form on abiotic or biotic surfaces, and because of that are associated with a large proportion of human infections. Biofilm formation imposes a limitation on the uses and design of ocular devices, such as intraocular lenses, posterior contact lenses, scleral buckles, conjunctival plugs, lacrimal intubation devices and orbital implants. In the absence of abiotic materials, biofilms have been observed on the capsule, and in the corneal stroma. As the evidence for the involvement of microbial biofilms in many ocular infections has become compelling, developing new strategies to prevent their formation or to eradicate them at the site of infection, has become a priority. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofilm; eye; ocular infections, postoperative ocular infections; device-related ocular infections biofilm; eye; ocular infections, postoperative ocular infections; device-related ocular infections

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Bispo, P.J.M.; Haas, W.; Gilmore, M.S. Biofilms in Infections of the Eye. Pathogens 2015, 4, 111-136.

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