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Review

Welder’s Anthrax: A Review of an Occupational Disease

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Office of the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
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Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
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Office of the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
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Division of Field Studies and Engineering, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
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Office of Science, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
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Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
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Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
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Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Silvia Bonetta
Pathogens 2022, 11(4), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11040402
Received: 3 March 2022 / Revised: 18 March 2022 / Accepted: 19 March 2022 / Published: 26 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthrax - A Threat Beyond Bacillus anthracis)
Since 1997, nine cases of severe pneumonia, caused by species within the B. cereus group and with a presentation similar to that of inhalation anthrax, were reported in seemingly immunocompetent metalworkers, with most being welders. In seven of the cases, isolates were found to harbor a plasmid similar to the B. anthracis pXO1 that encodes anthrax toxins. In this paper, we review the literature on the B. cereus group spp. pneumonia among welders and other metalworkers, which we term welder’s anthrax. We describe the epidemiology, including more information on two cases of welder’s anthrax in 2020. We also describe the health risks associated with welding, potential mechanisms of infection and pathological damage, prevention measures according to the hierarchy of controls, and clinical and public health considerations. Considering occupational risk factors and controlling exposure to welding fumes and gases among workers, according to the hierarchy of controls, should help prevent disease transmission in the workplace. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus; welder; welder’s anthrax Bacillus; welder; welder’s anthrax
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Perio, M.A.; Hendricks, K.A.; Dowell, C.H.; Bower, W.A.; Burton, N.C.; Dawson, P.; Schrodt, C.A.; Salzer, J.S.; Marston, C.K.; Feldmann, K.; Hoffmaster, A.R.; Antonini, J.M. Welder’s Anthrax: A Review of an Occupational Disease. Pathogens 2022, 11, 402. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11040402

AMA Style

de Perio MA, Hendricks KA, Dowell CH, Bower WA, Burton NC, Dawson P, Schrodt CA, Salzer JS, Marston CK, Feldmann K, Hoffmaster AR, Antonini JM. Welder’s Anthrax: A Review of an Occupational Disease. Pathogens. 2022; 11(4):402. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11040402

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Perio, Marie A., Katherine A. Hendricks, Chad H. Dowell, William A. Bower, Nancy C. Burton, Patrick Dawson, Caroline A. Schrodt, Johanna S. Salzer, Chung K. Marston, Karl Feldmann, Alex R. Hoffmaster, and James M. Antonini. 2022. "Welder’s Anthrax: A Review of an Occupational Disease" Pathogens 11, no. 4: 402. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11040402

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