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Article

Optimization of Streptococcus agalactiae Biofilm Culture in a Continuous Flow System for Photoinactivation Studies

1
Laboratory of Photobiology and Molecular Diagnostics, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, 80-307 Gdansk, Poland
2
Laboratory of Virus Molecular Biology, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, 80-307 Gdansk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kirsty Le Doare and Konstantinos Karampatsas
Pathogens 2021, 10(9), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091212
Received: 30 August 2021 / Revised: 9 September 2021 / Accepted: 14 September 2021 / Published: 18 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Group B-Streptococcus (GBS))
Streptococcus agalactiae is a relevant cause of neonatal mortality. It can be transferred to infants via the vaginal tract and cause meningitis, pneumonia, arthritis, or sepsis, among other diseases. The cause of therapy ineffectiveness and infection recurrence is the growth of bacteria as biofilms. To date, several research teams have attempted to find a suitable medium for the cultivation of S. agalactiae biofilms. Among others, simulated vaginal fluid has been used; however, biofilm production in this medium has been found to be lower than that in tryptic soy broth. We have previously shown that S. agalactiae can be successfully eradicated by photoinactivation in planktonic culture, but there have been no studies on biofilms. The aim of this study was to optimize S. agalactiae biofilm culture conditions to be used in photoinactivation studies. We compared biofilm production by four strains representing the most common serotypes in four different broth media with crystal violet staining. Then, we evaluated stationary biofilm culture in microtiter plates and biofilm growth in a CDC Biofilm Reactor® (BioSurface Technologies, Bozeman, MT, USA) under continuous flow conditions. Subsequently, we applied Rose Bengal-mediated photoinactivation to both biofilm models. We have shown that photoinactivation is efficient in biofilm eradication and is not cyto/phototoxic to human keratinocytes. We found conditions allowing for stable and repetitive S. agalactiae biofilm growth in continuous flow conditions, which can be successfully utilized in photoinactivation assays and potentially in all other antibacterial studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: S. agalactiae; Group B Streptococcus (GBS); biofilm; continuous flow; Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Biofilm Reactor; photoinactivation; Rose Bengal S. agalactiae; Group B Streptococcus (GBS); biofilm; continuous flow; Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Biofilm Reactor; photoinactivation; Rose Bengal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pieranski, M.K.; Rychlowski, M.; Grinholc, M. Optimization of Streptococcus agalactiae Biofilm Culture in a Continuous Flow System for Photoinactivation Studies. Pathogens 2021, 10, 1212. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091212

AMA Style

Pieranski MK, Rychlowski M, Grinholc M. Optimization of Streptococcus agalactiae Biofilm Culture in a Continuous Flow System for Photoinactivation Studies. Pathogens. 2021; 10(9):1212. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091212

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pieranski, Michal K., Michal Rychlowski, and Mariusz Grinholc. 2021. "Optimization of Streptococcus agalactiae Biofilm Culture in a Continuous Flow System for Photoinactivation Studies" Pathogens 10, no. 9: 1212. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091212

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