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Article

High Prevalence and New Genotype of Coxiella burnetii in Ticks Infesting Camels in Somalia

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Bundeswehr Medical Service Headquarters VI-2, Medical Intelligence & Information, Dachauer Str. 128, 80637 Munich, Germany
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Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Neuherbergstr. 11, 80937 Munich, Germany
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College of Veterinary Medicine, East Africa University, Bosaso P.O. Box 111, Somalia
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The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK
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Department of Parasitology, Institute of Zoology, University of Hohenheim, Emil Wolff-Strasse 34, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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College of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 204 Hilat Kuku, Khartoum North 13321, Sudan
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John Stenos
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060741
Received: 1 May 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 4 June 2021 / Published: 12 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Updates on Rickettsia and Coxiella)
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. It can infect animals, humans, and birds, as well as ticks, and it has a worldwide geographical distribution. To better understand the epidemiology of C. burnetii in Somalia, ticks infesting camels were collected from five different regions, including Bari, Nugaal, Mudug, Sool, and Sanaag, between January and March 2018. Collected ticks were tested for C. burnetii and Coxiella-like endosymbiont DNA by using IS1111, icd, and Com1-target PCR assays. Moreover, sequencing of the 16S-rRNA was conducted. Molecular characterization and typing were done by adaA-gene analysis and plasmid-type identification. Further typing was carried out by 14-marker Multi-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeats (MLVA/VNTR) analysis. The investigated ticks (n = 237) were identified as Hyalomma spp. (n = 227, 95.8%), Amblyomma spp. (n = 8, 3.4%), and Ripicephalus spp. (n = 2, 0.8%), and 59.1% (140/237) of them were positive for Coxiella spp. While Sanger sequencing and plasmid-type identification revealed a C. burnetii that harbours the QpRS-plasmid, MLVA/VNTR genotyping showed a new genotype which was initially named D21. In conclusion, this is the first report of C. burnetii in ticks in Somalia. The findings denote the possibility that C. burnetii is endemic in Somalia. Further epidemiological studies investigating samples from humans, animals, and ticks within the context of “One Health” are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: prevalence; molecular typing; Coxiella burnetii; ticks; camels; Somalia; MLVA prevalence; molecular typing; Coxiella burnetii; ticks; camels; Somalia; MLVA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Frangoulidis, D.; Kahlhofer, C.; Said, A.S.; Osman, A.Y.; Chitimia-Dobler, L.; Shuaib, Y.A. High Prevalence and New Genotype of Coxiella burnetii in Ticks Infesting Camels in Somalia. Pathogens 2021, 10, 741. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060741

AMA Style

Frangoulidis D, Kahlhofer C, Said AS, Osman AY, Chitimia-Dobler L, Shuaib YA. High Prevalence and New Genotype of Coxiella burnetii in Ticks Infesting Camels in Somalia. Pathogens. 2021; 10(6):741. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060741

Chicago/Turabian Style

Frangoulidis, Dimitrios, Claudia Kahlhofer, Ahmed S. Said, Abdinasir Y. Osman, Lidia Chitimia-Dobler, and Yassir A. Shuaib. 2021. "High Prevalence and New Genotype of Coxiella burnetii in Ticks Infesting Camels in Somalia" Pathogens 10, no. 6: 741. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060741

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