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Communication

IL-16 and BCA-1 Serum Levels Are Associated with Disease Severity of C. difficile Infection

1
The Azrieli Faculty of Medicine, Bar-Ilan University, Safed 1311502, Israel
2
Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, The Baruch Padeh Medical Center, Poriya, Tiberias 1528001, Israel
3
Unit of Infectious Diseases, The Baruch Padeh Medical Center, Poriya, Tiberias 1528001, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: I-Hsiu Huang and Jenn Wei Chen
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050631
Received: 27 April 2021 / Revised: 14 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 20 May 2021
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is associated with a high risk for complications and death, which requires identifying severe patients and treating them accordingly. We examined the serum level of six cytokines and chemokines (IL-16, IL-21, IL-23, IL-33, BCA-1, TRAIL) and investigated the association between them and patients’ disease severity. Concentrations of six cytokines and chemokines were measured using the MILLIPLEX®MAP kit (Billerica, MA, USA) in serum samples attained from CDI patients within 24–48 h after laboratory confirmation of C. difficile presence. Demographic and clinical data were collected from medical records. The disease severity score was determined according to guidelines of the “Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and the Infectious Diseases Society of America” (SHEA-IDSA). Out of 54 patients, 20 (37%) had mild to moderate disease and 34 (63%) had severe disease. IL-16 (p = 0.005) and BCA-1 (p = 0.012) were associated with a more severe disease. In conclusion, IL-16 and BCA-1, along with other cytokines and chemokines, may serve as biomarkers for the early prediction of CDI severity in the future. An improved and more accessible assessment of CDI severity will contribute to the adjustment of the medical treatment, which will lead to a better patient outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: Clostridioides difficile; nosocomial infection; cytokines; chemokines; disease severity Clostridioides difficile; nosocomial infection; cytokines; chemokines; disease severity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gotshal, D.; Azrad, M.; Hamo, Z.; Nitzan, O.; Peretz, A. IL-16 and BCA-1 Serum Levels Are Associated with Disease Severity of C. difficile Infection. Pathogens 2021, 10, 631. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050631

AMA Style

Gotshal D, Azrad M, Hamo Z, Nitzan O, Peretz A. IL-16 and BCA-1 Serum Levels Are Associated with Disease Severity of C. difficile Infection. Pathogens. 2021; 10(5):631. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050631

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gotshal, Dor, Maya Azrad, Zohar Hamo, Orna Nitzan, and Avi Peretz. 2021. "IL-16 and BCA-1 Serum Levels Are Associated with Disease Severity of C. difficile Infection" Pathogens 10, no. 5: 631. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050631

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