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Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens. A Potential Health Risk in Water Mist Systems Used as a Cooling Intervention

Public Health and Occupational Health and Safety, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
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Academic Editor: Sara Bonetta
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040462
Received: 3 March 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 7 April 2021 / Published: 12 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Emerging Pathogens)
Water mist systems (WMS) are used for evaporative cooling in public areas. The health risks associated with their colonization by opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) is not well understood. To advance the understanding of the potential health risk of OPPPs in WMS, biofilm, water and bioaerosol samples (n = 90) from ten (10) WMS in Australia were collected and analyzed by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods to detect the occurrence of five representative OPPPs: Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium avium, Naegleria fowleri and Acanthamoeba. P. aeruginosa (44%, n = 90) occurred more frequently in samples, followed by L. pneumophila serogroup (Sg) 2–14 (18%, n = 90) and L. pneumophila Sg 1 (6%, n = 90). A negative correlation between OPPP occurrence and residual free chlorine was observed except with Acanthamoeba, rs (30) = 0.067, p > 0.05. All detected OPPPs were positively correlated with total dissolved solids (TDS) except with Acanthamoeba. Biofilms contained higher concentrations of L. pneumophila Sg 2–14 (1000–3000 CFU/mL) than water samples (0–100 CFU/mL). This study suggests that WMS can be colonized by OPPPs and are a potential health risk if OPPP contaminated aerosols get released into ambient atmospheres. View Full-Text
Keywords: water mist systems; opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens; legionella pneumophila; mycobacterium avium; pseudomonas aeruginosa; acanthamoeba; naegleria fowleri water mist systems; opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens; legionella pneumophila; mycobacterium avium; pseudomonas aeruginosa; acanthamoeba; naegleria fowleri
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MDPI and ACS Style

Masaka, E.; Reed, S.; Davidson, M.; Oosthuizen, J. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens. A Potential Health Risk in Water Mist Systems Used as a Cooling Intervention. Pathogens 2021, 10, 462. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040462

AMA Style

Masaka E, Reed S, Davidson M, Oosthuizen J. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens. A Potential Health Risk in Water Mist Systems Used as a Cooling Intervention. Pathogens. 2021; 10(4):462. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040462

Chicago/Turabian Style

Masaka, Edmore, Sue Reed, Maggie Davidson, and Jacques Oosthuizen. 2021. "Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens. A Potential Health Risk in Water Mist Systems Used as a Cooling Intervention" Pathogens 10, no. 4: 462. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040462

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