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Article

Bartonella henselae Detected in Malignant Melanoma, a Preliminary Study

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T Lab Inc., 910 Clopper Road, Suite 220S, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA
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Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory, Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
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Dermatology Clinic, Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
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Department of Dermatology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
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Department of Biomedical Sciences, Duluth Campus, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN 55812, USA
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Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, University of Kufa, Kufa 54003, Iraq
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Galaxy Diagnostics Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lawrence S. Young and Olivier Sparagano
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030326
Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 10 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Biomedical Importance of Bartonella Species Infections)
Bartonella bacilliformis (B. bacilliformis), Bartonella henselae (B. henselae), and Bartonella quintana (B. quintana) are bacteria known to cause verruga peruana or bacillary angiomatosis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent cutaneous lesions in humans. Given the bacteria’s association with the dermal niche and clinical suspicion of occult infection by a dermatologist, we determined if patients with melanoma had evidence of Bartonella spp. infection. Within a one-month period, eight patients previously diagnosed with melanoma volunteered to be tested for evidence of Bartonella spp. exposure/infection. Subsequently, confocal immunohistochemistry and PCR for Bartonella spp. were used to study melanoma tissues from two patients. Blood from seven of the eight patients was either seroreactive, PCR positive, or positive by both modalities for Bartonella spp. exposure. Subsequently, Bartonella organisms that co-localized with VEGFC immunoreactivity were visualized using multi-immunostaining confocal microscopy of thick skin sections from two patients. Using a co-culture model, B. henselae was observed to enter melanoma cell cytoplasm and resulted in increased vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) production. Findings from this small number of patients support the need for future investigations to determine the extent to which Bartonella spp. are a component of the melanoma pathobiome. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma; A375 cells; Bartonella spp.; Bartonella henselae; vector-borne pathogens; multi-immunostaining methods; confocal microscopy of thick sections; cancer microbiome; melanoma pathobiome melanoma; A375 cells; Bartonella spp.; Bartonella henselae; vector-borne pathogens; multi-immunostaining methods; confocal microscopy of thick sections; cancer microbiome; melanoma pathobiome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ericson, M.E.; Breitschwerdt, E.B.; Reicherter, P.; Maxwell, C.; Maggi, R.G.; Melvin, R.G.; Maluki, A.H.; Bradley, J.M.; Miller, J.C.; Simmons, G.E., Jr.; Dencklau, J.; Joppru, K.; Peterson, J.; Bae, W.; Scanlon, J.; Bemis, L.T. Bartonella henselae Detected in Malignant Melanoma, a Preliminary Study. Pathogens 2021, 10, 326. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030326

AMA Style

Ericson ME, Breitschwerdt EB, Reicherter P, Maxwell C, Maggi RG, Melvin RG, Maluki AH, Bradley JM, Miller JC, Simmons GE Jr., Dencklau J, Joppru K, Peterson J, Bae W, Scanlon J, Bemis LT. Bartonella henselae Detected in Malignant Melanoma, a Preliminary Study. Pathogens. 2021; 10(3):326. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030326

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ericson, Marna E., Edward B. Breitschwerdt, Paul Reicherter, Cole Maxwell, Ricardo G. Maggi, Richard G. Melvin, Azar H. Maluki, Julie M. Bradley, Jennifer C. Miller, Glenn E. Simmons Jr., Jamie Dencklau, Keaton Joppru, Jack Peterson, Will Bae, Janet Scanlon, and Lynne T. Bemis 2021. "Bartonella henselae Detected in Malignant Melanoma, a Preliminary Study" Pathogens 10, no. 3: 326. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030326

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