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Article

Evaluation of Antibody Response in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic COVID-19 Patients and Diagnostic Assessment of New IgM/IgG ELISA Kits

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Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
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Department of Biomedical Science, College of Health Sciences, Member of QU Health, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
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Adult Allergy and Immunology Section, Department of Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha 2713, Qatar
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Medical Intensive Care Unit, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha 2713, Qatar
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Division of Genomics and Translational Biomedicine, College of Health and Life Sciences, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha 2713, Qatar
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Criticl Care Nursing Department, Hazm Mebaireek General Hospital (HMGH), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha 2713, Qatar
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Nursing Deaprtment, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha 2713, Qatar
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Department of Medicine, Hazm Mebaireek General Hospital (HMGH), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha 2713, Qatar
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yongjun Sui
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020161
Received: 5 January 2021 / Revised: 22 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Responses to Emerging Viruses)
This study aims to study the immune response and evaluate the performances of four new IgM and five IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for detecting anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies against different antigens in symptomatic and asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. A total of 291 samples collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic RT–PCR-confirmed patients were used to evaluate the ELISA kits’ performance (EDI, AnshLabs, DiaPro, NovaLisa, and Lionex). The sensitivity was measured at three different time-intervals post symptoms onset or positive SARS-CoV-2 RT–PCR test (≤14, 14–30, >30 days). The specificity was investigated using 119 pre-pandemic serum samples. The sensitivity of all IgM kits gradually decreased with time, ranging from 48.7% (EDI)–66.4% (Lionex) at ≤14 days, 29.1% (NovaLisa)–61.8% (Lionex) at 14–30 days, and 6.0% (AnshLabs)–47.9% (Lionex) at >30 days. The sensitivity of IgG kits increased with time, peaking in the latest interval (>30 days) at 96.6% (Lionex). Specificity of IgM ranged from 88.2% (Lionex)–99.2% (EDI), while IgG ranged from 75.6% (DiaPro)–98.3% (Lionex). Among all RT–PCR-positive patients, 23 samples (7.9%) were seronegative by all IgG kits, of which only seven samples (30.4%) had detectable IgM antibodies. IgM assays have variable and low sensitivity, thus considered a poor marker for COVID-19 diagnosis. IgG assays can miss at least 8% of RT–PCR-positive cases. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; serology; IgG; IgM; ELISA; sensitivity; specificity; symptomatic; asymptomatic COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; serology; IgG; IgM; ELISA; sensitivity; specificity; symptomatic; asymptomatic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Jighefee, H.T.; Yassine, H.M.; Al-Nesf, M.A.; Hssain, A.A.; Taleb, S.; Mohamed, A.S.; Maatoug, H.; Mohamedali, M.; Nasrallah, G.K. Evaluation of Antibody Response in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic COVID-19 Patients and Diagnostic Assessment of New IgM/IgG ELISA Kits. Pathogens 2021, 10, 161. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020161

AMA Style

Al-Jighefee HT, Yassine HM, Al-Nesf MA, Hssain AA, Taleb S, Mohamed AS, Maatoug H, Mohamedali M, Nasrallah GK. Evaluation of Antibody Response in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic COVID-19 Patients and Diagnostic Assessment of New IgM/IgG ELISA Kits. Pathogens. 2021; 10(2):161. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020161

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Jighefee, Hadeel T., Hadi M. Yassine, Maryam A. Al-Nesf, Ali A. Hssain, Sara Taleb, Ahmed S. Mohamed, Hassen Maatoug, Mohamed Mohamedali, and Gheyath K. Nasrallah. 2021. "Evaluation of Antibody Response in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic COVID-19 Patients and Diagnostic Assessment of New IgM/IgG ELISA Kits" Pathogens 10, no. 2: 161. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020161

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