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One Health Perspectives on New Emerging Viral Diseases in African Wild Great Apes

1
Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Agrarian Science Center, Federal University of Paraíba, Areia 58397-000, PB, Brazil
2
Graduate Program in Animal Science and Health, Rural Health and Technology Center, Federal University of Campina Grande, Avenida Universitária, S/N Jatobá, Patos 58708-110, PB, Brazil
3
LaBiMol, Medical Science Center, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051-900, PB, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David Modrý and Barbora Pafčo
Pathogens 2021, 10(10), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101283
Received: 28 July 2021 / Revised: 15 September 2021 / Accepted: 16 September 2021 / Published: 6 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogens in African Great Apes)
The most recent emerging infectious diseases originated in animals, mainly in wildlife reservoirs. Mutations and recombination events mediate pathogen jumps between host species. The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates allows the transmission of pathogens between these species. These pathogens cause severe impacts on public health and impair the conservation of habituated or non-habituated wild-living apes. Constant exposure of great apes to human actions such as hunting, deforestation, the opening of roads, and tourism, for example, contributes to increased interaction between humans and great apes. In spite of several studies emphasizing the risks of pathogen transmission between animals and humans, outbreaks of the reverse transmission of infectious agents threatening wildlife still occur on the African continent. In this context, measures to prevent the emergence of new diseases and conservation of primate species must be based on the One Health concept; that is, they must also ensure the monitoring of the environment and involve political and social aspects. In this article, we review and discuss the anthropological aspects of the transmission of diseases between people and wild primates and discuss new anthropozoonotic diseases in great apes in Africa from studies published between 2016 and 2020. We conclude that the health of great apes also depends on monitoring the health of human populations that interact with these individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: zoonosis; zooanthroponosis; infection; disease; respiratory; primate; simian zoonosis; zooanthroponosis; infection; disease; respiratory; primate; simian
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MDPI and ACS Style

Azevedo, D.S.; Duarte, J.L.C.; Freitas, C.F.G.; Soares, K.L.; Sousa, M.S.; Sousa, E.S.S.; Lucena, R.B. One Health Perspectives on New Emerging Viral Diseases in African Wild Great Apes. Pathogens 2021, 10, 1283. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101283

AMA Style

Azevedo DS, Duarte JLC, Freitas CFG, Soares KL, Sousa MS, Sousa ESS, Lucena RB. One Health Perspectives on New Emerging Viral Diseases in African Wild Great Apes. Pathogens. 2021; 10(10):1283. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101283

Chicago/Turabian Style

Azevedo, Denis S., José L.C. Duarte, Carlos F.G. Freitas, Karoline L. Soares, Mônica S. Sousa, Eduardo S.S. Sousa, and Ricardo B. Lucena. 2021. "One Health Perspectives on New Emerging Viral Diseases in African Wild Great Apes" Pathogens 10, no. 10: 1283. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101283

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