Converging Urban Agendas: Toward Healthy and Sustainable Communities
2. Historical and Conceptual Overview
2.1. Global Developments
2.2. The Role of Human Settlements
2.3. Theories and Factors Influencing Sustainable Community Development over Time
2.3.1. Ecological Modernisation
2.3.2. Weak vs. Strong Sustainability
2.3.3. Social Economy, Community Economic Development, Green Economy, and Self-Reliance
2.3.4. Resource Efficiency, Circular Economy, and Urban Metabolism
2.3.5. The “Social” and “Just” Aspects of Sustainability
2.3.7. The Ecological Footprint
2.3.8. Incorporating Public Health Concerns
3. Urban Sustainability Implementation and Assessment Hurdles
3.1. Urban Sustainability Planning and Implementation Gap
3.2. Issues in Assessing Healthy and Sustainable Communities
3.3. The Community Capital Framework
- Natural Capital: Minimizing the consumption of essential natural capital means living within ecological limits, conserving and enhancing natural resources, using resources sustainably (soil, air, water, energy, and so on), using cleaner production methods, and minimizing waste (solid, liquid, air pollution, and so on).
- Physical Capital: Improving physical capital includes focusing on community assets such as public facilities (e.g., hospitals and schools), water and sanitation provision, efficient transport, safe and high-quality housing, adequate infrastructure, and telecommunications.
- Economic Capital: Strengthening economic capital means focusing on maximizing the use of existing resources (using waste as a resource, for example), circulating dollars within a community, making things locally to replace imports, creating a new product, trading fairly with others, and developing community financial institutions.
- Human Capital: Increasing human capital requires a focus on areas such as health, education, nutrition, literacy, and family and community cohesion, as well as on increased training and improved workplace dynamics to generate more productive and innovative workers; basic determinants of health such as peace and safety, food, shelter, education, income, and employment are necessary prerequisites.
- Social Capital: Multiplying social capital requires attention to effective and representative local governance, strong organisations, capacity-building, participatory planning, and access to information as well as collaboration and partnerships.
- Cultural Capital: Enhancing cultural capital implies attention to traditions and values, heritage and place, the arts, diversity, and social history .
4. Converging Urban Agendas for Healthy and Sustainable Communities
4.2. Urban Productivity and Regenerative Sustainability
4.3. Healthy and Productive Communities
5. Conclusions and Further Research
Conflicts of Interest
References and Notes
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Roseland, M.; Spiliotopoulou, M. Converging Urban Agendas: Toward Healthy and Sustainable Communities. Soc. Sci. 2016, 5, 28. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci5030028
Roseland M, Spiliotopoulou M. Converging Urban Agendas: Toward Healthy and Sustainable Communities. Social Sciences. 2016; 5(3):28. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci5030028Chicago/Turabian Style
Roseland, Mark, and Maria Spiliotopoulou. 2016. "Converging Urban Agendas: Toward Healthy and Sustainable Communities" Social Sciences 5, no. 3: 28. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci5030028