Next Article in Journal
Towards Zero-Emission Refurbishment of Historic Buildings: A Literature Review
Previous Article in Journal
Are Mental Biases Responsible for the Perceived Comfort Advantage in “Green” Buildings?
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Buildings 2018, 8(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8020021

Interval Estimations of Building Heating Energy Consumption using the Degree-Day Method and Fuzzy Numbers

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 27 January 2018 / Accepted: 27 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [505 KB, uploaded 30 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to propagate the input uncertainties of the degree-day method to estimate the building heating energy consumption as numerical intervals. While it is common to use average or expected values (e.g., Typical Meteorological Year) to address the input uncertainties, this practice can only yield the best estimates as single-point values without informing the possible range of variations. After classifying two types of uncertainty as weather variability and imprecision in the degree-day method, this paper proposes the adoption of fuzzy numbers and their arithmetic as the theoretical approach to handle uncertainty. As the degree-day method mainly involves elementary arithmetic (e.g., addition and multiplication), fuzzy number arithmetic can be directly applied to formally process numerical intervals. The proposed method is demonstrated and verified via a building example in Canada, and the interval results are comparable to the variation of heating energy consumption based on the data of outdoor ambient temperatures in 52 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: degree-day method; fuzzy number and arithmetic; interval estimation degree-day method; fuzzy number and arithmetic; interval estimation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cheng, X.; Li, S. Interval Estimations of Building Heating Energy Consumption using the Degree-Day Method and Fuzzy Numbers. Buildings 2018, 8, 21.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Buildings EISSN 2075-5309 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top