The courtyard is a common and traditional architectural concept in Middle Eastern countries, especially Iran. This study presents practical solutions to arrive at the optimal form and features of a courtyard based on this traditional architecture to cope with the hot and arid climate of Isfahan, Iran. A model using the ENVI-met 3.1 software was used to simulate the courtyard orientation, the height of the wall enclosure, the albedo of the materials and the vegetation level in Isfahan. As the first step of the simulation, different orientations were simulated. Based on the results, the northern courtyard is recommended as the optimum orientation for the remainder of the simulation process. A high wall enclosure is recommended in the second step of simulation to ensure cool temperatures at noon and warmth at night. In the third step, it is advised to use low-albedo material in the courtyards to avoid the extra reflected radiation of used materials on the inhabitants. The final step suggests that more than 50% of the courtyard plan should be covered by greenery to ensure thermal comfort in the courtyards. Based on these suggestions, designers can create more sustainable courtyards that are better suited to the hot and arid climate of Isfahan.
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