Next Article in Journal
The Usability Study of a Proposed Environmental Experience Design Framework for Active Ageing
Previous Article in Journal
Three-Dimensional Printing Using Recycled High-Density Polyethylene: Technological Challenges and Future Directions for Construction
Open AccessArticle

Optimal Thermal Characteristics of the Courtyard in the Hot and Arid Climate of Isfahan

1
Department of Architecture, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin 3414896818, Iran
2
School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 1684613114, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Buildings 2018, 8(12), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8120166
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
The courtyard is a common and traditional architectural concept in Middle Eastern countries, especially Iran. This study presents practical solutions to arrive at the optimal form and features of a courtyard based on this traditional architecture to cope with the hot and arid climate of Isfahan, Iran. A model using the ENVI-met 3.1 software was used to simulate the courtyard orientation, the height of the wall enclosure, the albedo of the materials and the vegetation level in Isfahan. As the first step of the simulation, different orientations were simulated. Based on the results, the northern courtyard is recommended as the optimum orientation for the remainder of the simulation process. A high wall enclosure is recommended in the second step of simulation to ensure cool temperatures at noon and warmth at night. In the third step, it is advised to use low-albedo material in the courtyards to avoid the extra reflected radiation of used materials on the inhabitants. The final step suggests that more than 50% of the courtyard plan should be covered by greenery to ensure thermal comfort in the courtyards. Based on these suggestions, designers can create more sustainable courtyards that are better suited to the hot and arid climate of Isfahan. View Full-Text
Keywords: outdoor thermal comfort; courtyards; microclimate; ENVI-met 3.1; Isfahan city outdoor thermal comfort; courtyards; microclimate; ENVI-met 3.1; Isfahan city
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hasehzadeh Haseh, R.; Khakzand, M.; Ojaghlou, M. Optimal Thermal Characteristics of the Courtyard in the Hot and Arid Climate of Isfahan. Buildings 2018, 8, 166.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop