# Investigation on Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregate under Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Impact Test

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Materials and Specimens

#### 2.2. SHPB Test

## 3. Experimental Results

#### 3.1. Stress–Strain Curves

#### 3.2. Parameters Study

#### 3.2.1. Dynamic Compressive Strength

#### 3.2.2. Dynamic Increase Factor

#### 3.2.3. Initial Elastic Modulus

#### 3.2.4. Failure Modes

## 4. Numerical Model Validation

#### 4.1. Numerical FEM Model

#### 4.2. Impact Stress–Strain Curves

#### 4.3. Failure Modes

## 5. Conclusions

- (1)
- Quasi-static test results showed that the compressive strength of the NC was about 1.05 times higher than that of the RC. The dynamic results obtained suggest that the compressive strength of the NC was higher than that of the RC. With the increase in impact velocity, the compressive strength and the dynamic increase factor increased gradually. According to the impact tests, the logistic function expression of dynamic increase factor was obtained.
- (2)
- From the relationship between stress and the varying strain rates, it can be concluded that the stress–strain curves showed a linear behavior at the initial stage of loading. When the stress reached the maximum value, the curves presented a decreasing tendency. The concrete specimens presented the strain softening phenomenon.
- (3)
- With the increase in impact velocity, the growth rate of dynamic compressive strength became smaller. The expression of DIF gives an adequate estimate of the dynamic compression strength of the RC and NC within the strain rate range of 40–100 s
^{−1}. The proposed empirical model gives an adequate estimate of stress–strain curves of the RC and NC at the impact velocity of 9.6 m/s. - (4)
- The initial elastic modulus showed a decreasing tendency with the increase in strain. The strain had a significant influence on the initial elastic modulus when the strain was less than 0.010, while they were in good agreement with each other when the strain was more than 0.010.
- (5)
- Failure modes can conclude that the damage degree of concrete developed from the edge of specimens. Then, the failure gradually extends to the center of the specimens. With the increase in impact time, many through-cracks originated at the center of specimens. Then, the main part of the specimens were completely separated and destroyed. The simulation results showed good agreement with the SHPB impact test. Therefore, this model was feasible for performing qualitative analysis of the SHPB impact test of the RC.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 5.**50 mm diameter cross-sectional SHPB for impact test. (

**a**) SHPB device; (

**b**) ultra-dynamic strain gauge; (

**c**) specimen.

**Figure 10.**Effect of strain rates on dynamic compressive strength. (

**a**) Natural concrete; (

**b**) recycled concrete.

**Figure 20.**Failure modes of recycled concrete. (

**a**) t = 0.0 ms; (

**b**) t = 0.5 ms; (

**c**) t = 0.7 ms; (

**d**) t = 1.0 ms; (

**e**) t = 1.5 ms; (

**f**) t = 2.0 ms.

**Figure 21.**Failure modes of natural concrete. (

**a**) t = 0.0 ms; (

**b**) t = 0.5 ms; (

**c**) t = 0.7 ms; (

**d**) t = 1.0 ms; (

**e**) t = 1.5 ms; (

**f**) t = 2.0 ms.

Specimens | Load (kN) | Compressive Strength (MPa) | Average (MPa) |
---|---|---|---|

N40-1 | 929 | 41.3 | 41.52 |

N40-2 | 918 | 40.8 | |

N40-3 | 936 | 41.6 | |

N40-4 | 947 | 42.1 | |

N40-5 | 941 | 41.8 | |

R40-1 | 880 | 39.1 | 39.44 |

R40-2 | 884 | 39.3 | |

R40-3 | 891 | 39.6 | |

R40-4 | 887 | 39.4 | |

R40-5 | 896 | 39.8 |

Specimens | Impact Velocity (m/s) | Strain Rate (s^{−}^{1}) | Compressive Strength (MPa) | Specimens | Impact Velocity (m/s) | Strain Rate (s^{−}^{1}) | Compressive Strength (MPa) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

NC-100-1 | 4.8 | 50 | 48.6 | RC-100-1 | 4.5 | 37 | 44.7 |

NC-100-2 | 4.7 | 47 | 47.4 | RC-100-2 | 4.7 | 43 | 46.2 |

NC-100-3 | 4.6 | 41 | 46.8 | RC-100-3 | 4.6 | 46 | 45.3 |

NC-200-1 | 7.3 | 66 | 58.8 | RC-200-1 | 7.2 | 63 | 56.6 |

NC-200-2 | 7.1 | 57 | 57.6 | RC-200-2 | 7.1 | 54 | 55.5 |

NC-200-3 | 7.2 | 63 | 58.5 | RC-200-3 | 7.3 | 60 | 56.2 |

NC-300-1 | 9.7 | 80 | 67.7 | RC-300-1 | 9.5 | 74 | 64.3 |

NC-300-2 | 9.8 | 86 | 68.1 | RC-300-2 | 9.9 | 78 | 66.7 |

NC-300-3 | 9.6 | 77 | 67.3 | RC-300-3 | 9.7 | 79 | 65.8 |

NC-400-1 | 10.7 | 90 | 75.3 | RC-400-1 | 10.9 | 87 | 74.6 |

NC-400-2 | 11.1 | 98 | 76.2 | RC-400-2 | 10.7 | 92 | 72.6 |

NC-400-3 | 10.9 | 94 | 75.6 | RC-400-3 | 10.8 | 94 | 73.9 |

NC-500-1 | 12.3 | 107 | 83.1 | RC-500-1 | 12.3 | 105 | 82.1 |

NC-500-2 | 12.2 | 112 | 82.8 | RC-500-2 | 12.1 | 100 | 80.6 |

NC-500-3 | 12.4 | 105 | 83.7 | RC-500-3 | 12.2 | 104 | 81.2 |

Density (kg·m ^{−3}) | Shear Modulus (GPa) | Strength | Hardening Coefficient | Strain Rate Coefficient | Hardening Exponent | Compressive Strength (MPa) | Tensile Strength (MPa) | Strain Rate | Minimum Plastic Strain |

2400 | 14.86 | 0.79 | 1.6 | 0.007 | 0.61 | 48 | 4 | 1 × 10^{−6} | 0.01 |

Normalize strength (MPa) | Compressive strain | Volume strain | Stress (GPa) | Strain rate (compacted) | Damage constant 1 | Damage constant 2 | Material constant 1 (MPa) | Material constant 2 (MPa) | Material constant 3 (MPa) |

7 | 16 | 1 × 10^{−3} | 0.80 | 0.1 | 0.04 | 1.0 | 85 | −171 | 208 |

Density (kg·m ^{−3}) | Shear Modulus (GPa) | Strength | Hardening Coefficient | Strain rate Coefficient | Hardening Exponent | Compressive Strength (MPa) | Tensile Strength (MPa) | Strain Rate | Minimum Plastic Strain |

2450 | 18.47 | 0.79 | 1.8 | 0.007 | 0.99 | 45 | 4 | 1 × 10^{−6} | 0.01 |

Normalize strength (MPa) | Compressive strain | Volume strain | Stress (GPa) | Strain rate (compacted) | Damage constant 1 | Damage constant 2 | Material constant 1 (MPa) | Material constant 2 (MPa) | Material constant 3 (MPa) |

7 | 15 | 8.0 × 10^{−4} | 1.3 | 0.07 | 0.04 | 1.0 | 85 | −171 | 208 |

Density (g/mm ^{3}) | Elastic Modulus (MPa) | Poisson’s Ratio | Yield Strength (MPa) | Tangent Modulus (MPa) | Failure Strain |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

7.8 × 10^{−3} | 2.1 × 10^{5} | 0.3 | 500 | 6 × 10^{2} | 0.28 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Du, W.; Yang, C.; De Backer, H.; Li, C.; Ming, K.; Zhang, H.; Pan, Y.
Investigation on Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregate under Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Impact Test. *Buildings* **2022**, *12*, 1055.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071055

**AMA Style**

Du W, Yang C, De Backer H, Li C, Ming K, Zhang H, Pan Y.
Investigation on Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregate under Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Impact Test. *Buildings*. 2022; 12(7):1055.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071055

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Du, Wenping, Caiqian Yang, Hans De Backer, Chen Li, Kai Ming, Honglei Zhang, and Yong Pan.
2022. "Investigation on Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregate under Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Impact Test" *Buildings* 12, no. 7: 1055.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071055