Characterizing Positive Energy District (PED) through a Preliminary Review of 60 Existing Projects in Europe
2. Data Source and Research Methods
2.1. Data Source
2.2. Research Methods
2.2.1. Development of Database
- Project characteristics include the location of the project, initiation year, the status of the project in 2019, which is further divided into stages ‘in planning’, ‘in implementation’, ‘implemented/in operation’. Such categorization refers to the projects where construction of the energy systems is completed and yet to be commissioned or integrate into the existing energy networks. The amount of area is being consumed by the cumulative of all energy systems installed with this project implementation. The appropriate financing source of each project is also checked.
- The type of buildings involved in the PEDs consist of residential, commercial and industrial, etc. In most cases, renewable energy systems are installed on building components (e.g., roofs, envelopes) to reduce local energy demands and further supply excess energy generation to the neighbourhoods.
- The common energy technologies used in PED are reviewed, including energy supply and storage.
- Key energy concepts are examined with strategies and detailed planning to reach the project goals. The selection of energy system combinations with different technologies is crucial, which needs intensive investigation and planning.
- The keywords used in the projects are identified and the most common keywords are abstracted. These keywords vary between the projects with different names, comparing to PED, such as smart city, positive energy blocks, zero energy building, smart grid, zero energy district, urban energy transition, etc.
- Inclusive strategies of EV/e-mobility are identified and included in the data collection. The strategies aim to encourage clean transport solutions within PED scope and integrate with energy systems to provide energy flexibility.
- The temporal scale of the project refers to achieving the project goals, relative to the time period in a day/month/year scale. Since most of the projects are still under planning and implementation stages and due to insufficient information from the sources, the data for temporal scale is only available for less than 50% of the identified projects.
- Stakeholders in each project are summarized, such as a regional municipality, citizens, real-estate developers etc. They are involved in a different stage of project development. The key drivers vary between every project and have analyzed the common driving stakeholders to understand the trends.
- The key success factors with supporting regulations along with challenges are collected. Every project would come across challenges/barriers or have key success factors while planning and implementing the project.
2.2.2. Text Extraction and Mining Method for Keywords Abstraction
2.2.3. Data Visualization
3.1. Characteristics of Existing PED Projects
3.1.1. Initiation Year
3.1.2. Location of Identified 60 PED Related Projects
3.1.3. Status of the Identified Projects
3.1.4. Project Area (Spatial Scale)
3.1.5. Finance Models Used in PED Projects
3.1.6. Type of Buildings Involved
3.1.7. Major Energy Technologies
3.1.8. Challenges under Different Implementation Stage
3.2. Most Commonly Used Words and Sentiment Analysis
3.3. Interactive Dashboard
5. Future Work
Conflicts of Interest
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|Key Parameters||Type of Data|
|Project characteristics||Location, initiated year, development stage, project area, finance model, etc.|
|Type of buildings involved||Residential, commercial, social, industry, etc.|
|Common energy technologies||Solar Thermal, geothermal, PV, heat pumps, etc.|
|Key energy concepts||Energy combinations and strategies to meet the goals|
|Keywords||Positive energy district, smart city, etc.|
|EV/E-mobility||Included/Excluded in energy strategies|
|Temporal scale||Hourly/monthly/yearly, etc.|
|Driving stakeholders||Municipality, citizens, real estate developers, etc.|
|Others||Supporting regulations, barriers, key success factors, etc.|
|PED Implemented||Indicate PED ambition and are implemented|
|PED in Implementation||Indicate PED ambition and are amidst implementation|
|PED Planning||Indicate PED ambition and are still being planned|
|Towards-PED Implemented||Did not declare a PED ambition but present interesting features for the PED Program and are implemented|
|Towards-PED in Implementation||Did not declare a PED ambition but presents interesting features for the PED Program and are amidst implementations|
|Towards-PED Planning||Did not declare a PED ambition but presents interesting features for the PED Program and are still being planned|
|Topic||PED in Planning||PED in Implementation||PED Implemented/in Operation|
|Administrative & Policy||Conflicts between different authorities involved in the project||Political management||Approvals and permits from municipality and other entities might lead to project timeline extension|
|Legal & Regulatory||Regulatory framework which governs involved actors throughout Europe||Regulatory barriers for piloting/testing|
|Technical||System boundary conditions defined||Identification and deployment of local feasible clean energy systems||Analysis required for hybrid energy system operations|
|Coping with rapid growth of new technologies||Analysis required for underground seasonal energy storage|
|Energy generation system is far away from the consumers|
|Thermal mining challenges in the urban areas to reduce the distance from energy generation system far away|
|The electricity supply examined properly above 90 degrees|
|Environmental||Disallowing inefficient and high polluting energy generation systems|
|Social & Cultural||Cultural differences between different cities involved in the partnership|
|Information & Awareness||Local citizen acceptance towards new things in rural areas|
|Economical & Financial||Economic feasibility||Finance dependence on private investors|
|Finance availing according to the project timeline||Local finance|
|Overlapping implementation with local ongoing constructions|
|Encouragement of project drivers like real estate developers||Stakeholders and involved actor’s commitment towards project goals||Conflicts due to lack of common interest between different landowners|
|Uncertainty in stakeholder’s commitment||Creating interest in project drivers like building owners and landlords||Strong collaborations needed between energy companies and real estate developers for fast implementation|
|Others||Active consideration of local knowledge||Lack of supporting studies/knowledge for implementation|
|Lack of supporting studies/knowledge for planning|
|City/District||Country||Development Stage in 2020||Temporal Scale||Major Energy Flows|
|Åland Island||Finland||Under implementation||Yearly|
|Stor-Elvdal Municipality||Norway||In operation||n/a|
|Elverum||Norway||Under planning and implementation||n/a|
|Lund (Brunnshög)||Sweden||Under implementation||Yearly|
|Lund (Medicon Village)||Sweden||Implementation completed||Yearly|
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Zhang, X.; Penaka, S.R.; Giriraj, S.; Sánchez, M.N.; Civiero, P.; Vandevyvere, H. Characterizing Positive Energy District (PED) through a Preliminary Review of 60 Existing Projects in Europe. Buildings 2021, 11, 318. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080318
Zhang X, Penaka SR, Giriraj S, Sánchez MN, Civiero P, Vandevyvere H. Characterizing Positive Energy District (PED) through a Preliminary Review of 60 Existing Projects in Europe. Buildings. 2021; 11(8):318. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080318Chicago/Turabian Style
Zhang, Xingxing, Santhan Reddy Penaka, Samhita Giriraj, Maria Nuria Sánchez, Paolo Civiero, and Han Vandevyvere. 2021. "Characterizing Positive Energy District (PED) through a Preliminary Review of 60 Existing Projects in Europe" Buildings 11, no. 8: 318. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11080318