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Article

Development of an Analytical Model for the Extraction of Manganese from Marine Nodules

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Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta 1270709, Chile
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Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Minas, Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta 1270709, Chile
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Departamento de Ingeniería Minera y Civil, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso Xlll N°52, Cartagena 30203, Spain
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Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia, Universidad de Atacama, Copiapó 1531772, Chile
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Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Procesos de Minerales, Universidad de Antofagasta, Av. Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile
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Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 0C5, Canada
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(8), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9080903
Received: 11 July 2019 / Revised: 3 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 17 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Simulation Technologies of Metallurgical Processing)
Multivariable analytical models provide a descriptive (albeit approximate) mathematical relationship between a set of independent variables and one or more dependent variables. The current work develops an analytical model that extends a design of experiments for the leaching of manganese from marine nodules, using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the presence of iron-containing tailings, which are both by-products of conventional copper extraction. The experiments are configured to address the effect of time, particle size, acid concentration, Fe2O3/MnO2 ratio, stirring speed and temperature, under typical industrial conditions. The recovery of manganese has been modeled using a first order differential equation that accurately fits experimental results, noting that Fe2O3/MnO2 and temperature are the most critical independent variables, while the particle size is the least influential (under typical conditions). This study obtains representative fitting parameters, that can be used to explore the incorporation of Mn recovery from marine nodules, as part of the extended value chain of copper sulfide processing. View Full-Text
Keywords: Manganese extraction; marine nodules; acid leaching; design of experiments; ordinary differential equations; mathematical modelling Manganese extraction; marine nodules; acid leaching; design of experiments; ordinary differential equations; mathematical modelling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saldaña, M.; Toro, N.; Castillo, J.; Hernández, P.; Trigueros, E.; Navarra, A. Development of an Analytical Model for the Extraction of Manganese from Marine Nodules. Metals 2019, 9, 903. https://doi.org/10.3390/met9080903

AMA Style

Saldaña M, Toro N, Castillo J, Hernández P, Trigueros E, Navarra A. Development of an Analytical Model for the Extraction of Manganese from Marine Nodules. Metals. 2019; 9(8):903. https://doi.org/10.3390/met9080903

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saldaña, Manuel, Norman Toro, Jonathan Castillo, Pía Hernández, Emilio Trigueros, and Alessandro Navarra. 2019. "Development of an Analytical Model for the Extraction of Manganese from Marine Nodules" Metals 9, no. 8: 903. https://doi.org/10.3390/met9080903

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