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Recovery of Platinum from Spent Petroleum Catalysts: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology

1
Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2
Nuclear Chemistry and Industrial Material Recycling, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
3
Yunlong Country Platinum Cui Precious Metals Technology Co., Ltd., Dali 672711, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(3), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9030354
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract

The global yield of platinum (Pt) recovery from spent catalysts is about 30%. Pt recovery from spent catalysts is one of the most significant methods to reduce its supply risk and meet future demand. The current hydro-leaching processes always involve extremely high acidity (c(H+) > 6.0 mol/L), causing serious environmental issues and consuming large amounts of reagents. This paper studied the recovery of Pt from spent petroleum catalysts in a mild leaching solution (c(H+) = 1.0−2.0 mol/L). The HCl and NaCl were used as leaching agents, while H2O2 was used for oxidation of Pt. The leaching factors, including solid/liquid ratio (S/L), acidity, leaching temperature, and H2O2 usage, were studied. The leaching efficiency of Pt was 95.7% under the conditions of S/L of 1:5 g/mL, HCl of 1.0 mol/L, NaCl of 5.0 mol/L, 10% H2O2/spent catalysts of 0.6 mL/g, and temperature of 90 °C for 2 h. The leaching kinetic of platinum fits best to the Avrami equation. The apparent activation energy for leaching platinum was 114.9 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the effects of the operating variables were assessed and optimized by employing a response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken Design. The result shows that HCl concentration had the greatest impact on the leaching efficiency as compared to the H2O2 concentration and S/L ratio. Pt leaching efficiency was increased to 98.1% at the optimized conditions of HCl of 1.45 mol/L, NaCl of 4.55 mol/L, 10% H2O2/spent catalysts of 0.66 mL/g, and S/L of 1:4.85. The purity of Pt is over 90% by the reduction of iron powder. View Full-Text
Keywords: spent petroleum catalysts; platinum recovery; leaching; kinetic analysis; response surface methodology spent petroleum catalysts; platinum recovery; leaching; kinetic analysis; response surface methodology
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Ding, Y.; Zheng, H.; Li, J.; Zhang, S.; Liu, B.; Ekberg, C.; Jian, Z. Recovery of Platinum from Spent Petroleum Catalysts: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology. Metals 2019, 9, 354.

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