On the Role of Grain Size and Carbon Content on the Sensitization and Desensitization Behavior of 301 Austenitic Stainless Steel
Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(11), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9111193
Received: 14 October 2019 / Revised: 3 November 2019 / Accepted: 5 November 2019 / Published: 6 November 2019
The effect of grain size in the range 72 to 190 μm and carbon content in the range 0.105–0.073 wt.% on the intergranular corrosion of the austenitic stainless steel 301 has been investigated. Grain boundary chromium depletion has been studied directly using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy combined with scanning transmission electron microscopy and indirectly using double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests. In addition, chromium depletion has been modelled using the CALPHAD Thermo-Calc software TC-DICTRA. It is shown that the degree of sensitization measured using the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests can be successfully predicted with the aid of a depletion parameter based on the modelled chromium depletion profiles for heat treatment times covering both the sensitization and de-sensitization or self-healing. Additionally, along with intergranular M23C6 carbides, intragranular M23C6 and Cr2N nitrides that affect the available Cr for grain boundary carbide precipitation were also observed.