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Open AccessArticle

Initial Transfer Behavior and Solidification Structure Evolution in a Large Continuously Cast Bloom with a Combination of Nozzle Injection Mode and M-EMS

1
School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2
Technical Quality Center, Xining Special Steel Co., Ltd., Xining 810005, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101083
Received: 6 September 2019 / Revised: 3 October 2019 / Accepted: 3 October 2019 / Published: 8 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Modeling and Simulation in Ironmaking and Steelmaking)
A three-dimensional numerical model combining electromagnetic field, fluid flow, heat transfer, and solidification has been established to study the effect of nozzle injection mode and mold electromagnetic stirring (M-EMS) on the internal quality of a continuously cast bloom. The model is validated by measured data of the magnetic flux density along the stirrer center line. According to the simulation and experimental results, M-EMS can introduce a horizontal swirling flow ahead of the solidification front, promoting the superheat dissipation of molten steel and columnar to equiaxed transition (CET). As the stirring current increases from 0 to 800 A, the superheat at the mold exit in the bloom center decreases by 1.9 K for the single-port nozzle case and 3.8 K for the five-port nozzle case. The resulting increase in the equiaxed crystal ratio is about 5.65% and 4.06%, respectively. In comparison, the injection mode shows a more significant influence on the heat transfer and solidification structure in the bloom under the present casting conditions. The superheat at the mold exit in the bloom center decreases by 5.1–7.7 K as the injection mode changes from a single-port nozzle to a five-port nozzle, and the increase in the equiaxed crystal ratio ranges between 14.8% and 17%. It is found that the flow velocity of the molten steel in front of the solidification interface for the five-port nozzle is higher than that for the single-port nozzle regardless of the M-EMS power. The washing effect here reinforces both the heat exchange through the solidification interface and the dendrite re-melting or fragmenting, stimulating the formation of an equiaxed crystal at the bloom center. In addition, it is observed that both the central shrinkage and carbon segregation have decreased with the five-port nozzle plus M-EMS. This suggests that the combined application of a five-port nozzle and M-EMS can effectively improve the internal quality of large bloom castings. View Full-Text
Keywords: nozzle injection mode; M-EMS; swirling flow; superheat dissipation; equiaxed crystal ratio; carbon segregation nozzle injection mode; M-EMS; swirling flow; superheat dissipation; equiaxed crystal ratio; carbon segregation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, P.; Zhang, Z.; Tie, Z.-P.; Qi, M.; Lan, P.; Li, S.-X.; Yang, Z.-B.; Zhang, J.-Q. Initial Transfer Behavior and Solidification Structure Evolution in a Large Continuously Cast Bloom with a Combination of Nozzle Injection Mode and M-EMS. Metals 2019, 9, 1083.

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