# Investigation on the Alloy Mixing and Inclusion Removement through Using a New Slot-Porous Matched Tuyeres

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Mathematical Model and Boundary Conditions

#### 2.1. Bubble Transportation Model

_{p}

_{,ar}at 20 °C is 1.78 kg/m

^{3}. T = 1800 K is the steel’s temperature.

#### 2.2. Bubble Transport Model

_{1}and C

_{2}are 4 μm and 100 μm, respectively. $\alpha $ is the volume fraction of the particles in a geometry cell. The relaxation time is the time that is needed for a bubble to reach the equilibrium diameter. The mean bubble diameter will be driven to its equilibrium diameter during a timeframe given by the relaxation time.

^{−6}. Then, the particle diameter after coalescence and breakup can be written as:

#### 2.3. Boundary Condition and Numerical Details

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Validation for Mathematical Model

#### 3.2. Coalescence and Breakup of Bubbles and Attachment of Inclusions

#### 3.3. Effect of Tuyere Matches on the Flow Field and Inclusion Transport

#### 3.4. Diameter and Density Distribution of Bubbles

## 4. Conclusions

- (1)
- The flow field under S–P mode is quite asymmetrical due to the differences of bubbles in size, which is beneficial for shortening mixing time during ladle refining;
- (2)
- Due to the decrease of hydraulic pressure, bubbles would expand when rising to the top. This is why the velocity near the top is higher;
- (3)
- The slot–porous matched dual tuyeres can significantly increase the inclusion removal ratio and shorten the mixing time at the same time. Therefore, this type of injection argon is recommended for use in future refining.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Geometry and boundary conditions for the full size model: (

**a**) isometric view, (

**b**) top view.

**Figure 3.**Comparison of open eyes at different flow rates: (

**a**) 30 NL/min, (

**b**) 90 NL/min, (

**c**) 150 NL/min.

**Figure 6.**Velocity distribution in liquid steel and slag–metal interface: (

**a**) P–P mode, (

**b**) S–P mode.

**Figure 10.**Mass fraction of dye tracers at different times with different modes: (

**a**) 0 s, (

**b**) 10 s, (

**c**) 30 s, (

**d**) 50 s, (

**e**) 70 s.

Parameters | Real Ladle | Water Model (Scale 1:7) |
---|---|---|

Gas flow rate, NL/min | 150 + 150 | 0.765 + 0.765 |

tuyere angle ° | 114° | 114° |

Dynamic viscosity of steel, kg/(m·s) | 0.0051 | 0.001 |

Dynamic viscosity of air, kg/(m·s) | 1.79 × 10^{−5} | 1.79 × 10^{−5} |

Density of dioctyl phthalate, kg/(m^{3}) | 2800 | 900 |

Radius of ladle bottom, mm | 2717 | 388 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Li, X.; Wang, H.; Tian, J.; Wang, D.; Qu, T.; Hou, D.; Hu, S.; Wu, G.
Investigation on the Alloy Mixing and Inclusion Removement through Using a New Slot-Porous Matched Tuyeres. *Metals* **2023**, *13*, 667.
https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040667

**AMA Style**

Li X, Wang H, Tian J, Wang D, Qu T, Hou D, Hu S, Wu G.
Investigation on the Alloy Mixing and Inclusion Removement through Using a New Slot-Porous Matched Tuyeres. *Metals*. 2023; 13(4):667.
https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040667

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Li, Xianglong, Huihua Wang, Jun Tian, Deyong Wang, Tianpeng Qu, Dong Hou, Shaoyan Hu, and Guangjun Wu.
2023. "Investigation on the Alloy Mixing and Inclusion Removement through Using a New Slot-Porous Matched Tuyeres" *Metals* 13, no. 4: 667.
https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040667