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Process Induced Preheating in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Monitored by Thermography and Its Influence on the Microstructure of 316L Stainless Steel Parts
Article

Relative Density Measurement of PBF-Manufactured 316L and AlSi10Mg Samples via Eddy Current Testing

1
Inspire AG, Innovation Center for Additive Manufacturing Switzerland (ICAMS), Fürstenlandstrasse 122, 9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland
2
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing (IWF), Leonhardstrasse 21, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
3
Sensima Inspection SARL, 2 Route Cité Ouest, 1196 Gland, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Bruno
Metals 2021, 11(9), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11091376
Received: 2 August 2021 / Revised: 25 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 31 August 2021
Powder bed fusion (PBF) is the most commonly used additive manufacturing process for fabricating complex metal parts via the layer-wise melting of powder. Despite the tremendous recent technological development of PBF, manufactured parts still lack consistent quality in terms of part properties such as dimensional accuracy, surface roughness, or relative density. In addition to process-inherent variability, this is mainly owing to a knowledge gap in the understanding of process influences and the inability to adequately control them during part production. Eddy current testing (ECT) is a well-established nondestructive testing technique primarily used to detect near-surface defects and measure material properties such as electrical conductivity in metal parts. Hence, it is an appropriate technology for the layer-wise measuring of the material properties of the fused material in PBF. This study evaluates ECT’s potential as a novel in situ monitoring technology for relative part density in PBF. Parts made from SS316L and AlSi10Mg with different densities are manufactured on a PBF machine. These parts are subsequently measured using ECT, as well as the resulting signals correlated with the relative part density. The results indicate a statistically significant and strong correlation (316L: r(8) = 0.998, p < 0.001, AlSi10Mg: r(8) = 0.992, p < 0.001) between relative part density and the ECT signal component, which is mainly affected by the electrical conductivity of the part. The results indicate that ECT has the potential to evolve into an effective technology for the layer-wise measuring of relative part density during the PBF process. View Full-Text
Keywords: powder bed fusion (PBF); eddy current testing (ECT); part quality; in situ relative part density measurement; quality management powder bed fusion (PBF); eddy current testing (ECT); part quality; in situ relative part density measurement; quality management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Spurek, M.A.; Luong, V.H.; Spierings, A.B.; Lany, M.; Santi, G.; Revaz, B.; Wegener, K. Relative Density Measurement of PBF-Manufactured 316L and AlSi10Mg Samples via Eddy Current Testing. Metals 2021, 11, 1376. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11091376

AMA Style

Spurek MA, Luong VH, Spierings AB, Lany M, Santi G, Revaz B, Wegener K. Relative Density Measurement of PBF-Manufactured 316L and AlSi10Mg Samples via Eddy Current Testing. Metals. 2021; 11(9):1376. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11091376

Chicago/Turabian Style

Spurek, Marvin A., Viet H. Luong, Adriaan B. Spierings, Marc Lany, Gilles Santi, Bernard Revaz, and Konrad Wegener. 2021. "Relative Density Measurement of PBF-Manufactured 316L and AlSi10Mg Samples via Eddy Current Testing" Metals 11, no. 9: 1376. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11091376

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