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Article

Corrosion Behaviour and J774A.1 Macrophage Response to Hyaluronic Acid Functionalization of Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide on Biomedical Grade CoCr

1
Department of Surface Engineering, Corrosion and Durability, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM, CSIC), Avda, Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Cell-Biomaterial Recognition Lab., Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas Margarita Salas (CIB-MS, CSIC), Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Dr. Blanca Teresa Pérez-Maceda who participated actively in this research with great enthusiasm has passed away.
Academic Editor: Krzysztof Rokosz
Metals 2021, 11(7), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071078
Received: 1 June 2021 / Revised: 28 June 2021 / Accepted: 29 June 2021 / Published: 5 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering of Metals and Alloys)
Improvements in the lubrication of metal–metal joint prostheses are of great clinical interest in order to minimize the particles released during wear–corrosion processes. In this work, electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ErGO) on CoCr was functionalized with hyaluronic acid (ErGOHA). Functionalization was carried out by soaking for 24 h in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution containing 3 g/L hyaluronic acid (HA). The corrosion performance of CoCrErGO and CoCrErGOHA surfaces was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for 7 days in PBS. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity were studied in mouse macrophages J774A.1 cell line by the measurement of mitochondrial activity (WST-1 assay) and plasma membrane damage (LDH assay). The inflammatory response was examined through TNF-α and IL-10 cytokines in macrophages culture supernatants, used as indicators of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses, respectively. EIS diagrams of CoCrErGOHA revealed two time constants: the first one, attributed to the hydration and diffusion processes of the HA layer adsorbed on ErGO, and the second one, the corrosion resistance of ErGOHA/CoCr interface. Macrophage assays showed better behavior on CoCrErGOHA than CoCr and CoCrErGO surfaces based on their biocompatible, cytotoxic, and inflammatory responses. Comparative analysis of IL-10 showed that functionalization with HA induces higher values of anti-inflammatory cytokine, suggesting an improvement in inflammatory behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyaluronic acid; CoCr alloy; electrochemically reduced graphene oxide; macrophages; corrosion; inflammatory response hyaluronic acid; CoCr alloy; electrochemically reduced graphene oxide; macrophages; corrosion; inflammatory response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chico, B.; Pérez-Maceda, B.T.; San José, S.; Escudero, M.L.; García-Alonso, M.C.; Lozano, R.M. Corrosion Behaviour and J774A.1 Macrophage Response to Hyaluronic Acid Functionalization of Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide on Biomedical Grade CoCr. Metals 2021, 11, 1078. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071078

AMA Style

Chico B, Pérez-Maceda BT, San José S, Escudero ML, García-Alonso MC, Lozano RM. Corrosion Behaviour and J774A.1 Macrophage Response to Hyaluronic Acid Functionalization of Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide on Biomedical Grade CoCr. Metals. 2021; 11(7):1078. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071078

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chico, Belén, Blanca Teresa Pérez-Maceda, Sara San José, María Lorenza Escudero, María Cristina García-Alonso, and Rosa María Lozano. 2021. "Corrosion Behaviour and J774A.1 Macrophage Response to Hyaluronic Acid Functionalization of Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide on Biomedical Grade CoCr" Metals 11, no. 7: 1078. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071078

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