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Article

Effect of Zr Additions on Non-Metallic Inclusions in X11CrNiMo12 Steel

1
Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Metal Ravne d.o.o., Koroška cesta 14, SI-2390 Ravne na Koroškem, Slovenia
3
Department of Materials and Metallurgy, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva cesta 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2020, 10(9), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091183
Received: 22 July 2020 / Revised: 28 August 2020 / Accepted: 31 August 2020 / Published: 2 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusion/Precipitate Engineering in Steels)
The production of clean steel is associated with high-quality steel grades for demanding applications. The formation of oxide inclusions mainly depends on the deoxidation practice; it is usually carried out through Al additions, but alumina inclusions can have detrimental effects. An alternative zirconium inclusion modification was used in a creep-resistant steel to improve the cleanliness of laboratory-made steel. The thermodynamics behind the inclusion modification are presented, the reaction products are identified and the steel cleanliness improvement is quantified. The resulting influence of zirconium addition on non-metallic inclusions and mechanical properties is discussed. While the Zr additions drastically reduce the non-metallic inclusion size and area, additions above a certain amount result in the formation of zirconium nitrides that ultimately soften the martensitic steel due to the depletion of nitrogen in solid solution. View Full-Text
Keywords: clean steel; non-metallic inclusions; Zr addition; creep-resistant steel; microstructure clean steel; non-metallic inclusions; Zr addition; creep-resistant steel; microstructure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Burja, J.; Koležnik, M.; Batič, B.Š.; Medved, J. Effect of Zr Additions on Non-Metallic Inclusions in X11CrNiMo12 Steel. Metals 2020, 10, 1183. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091183

AMA Style

Burja J, Koležnik M, Batič BŠ, Medved J. Effect of Zr Additions on Non-Metallic Inclusions in X11CrNiMo12 Steel. Metals. 2020; 10(9):1183. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091183

Chicago/Turabian Style

Burja, Jaka, Mitja Koležnik, Barbara Š. Batič, and Jožef Medved. 2020. "Effect of Zr Additions on Non-Metallic Inclusions in X11CrNiMo12 Steel" Metals 10, no. 9: 1183. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091183

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