Structure and Properties of Al–0.6wt.%Zr Wire Alloy Manufactured by Direct Drawing of Electromagnetically Cast Wire Rod
2. Experimental Methods
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Characterization of as-Cast EMC Rod
3.2. Effect of Annealing on Hardness and Electrical Conductivity
3.3. Structure and Properties of Wire
- The experimental aluminum alloy, containing 0.6%Zr, 0.4%Fe and 0.4%Si (wt.%), was manufactured by the method of electromagnetic casting (EMC) in the form of long-length rod 12 mm in diameter. The as-cast EMC rod has high ductility when cold drawing a wire with a high degree of deformation (94%). High deformability of as-cast rods can be explained by favorable microstructure, e.g., small size of the dendritic cells (about 4 µm), submicron eutectic particles of Al8Fe2Si phase, and almost full dissolving of Zr in Al solid solution.
- The effect of annealing temperature (up to 600 °C) on the hardness and electrical resistivity (ER) of EMC rod, cold rolled strip, and cold drawn wire were studied. It was shown that the temperature dependences of ER for the cold deformed strip and the wire were very close. The best combination of hardness and ER in the cold rolled strip was reached after annealing at 400 °C.
- TEM study of structure evolution in the as-drawn wire revealed the onset of Al3Zr (L12) nanoparticle formation at 300 °C, and almost complete decomposition of (Al) at 400 °C. The distribution of the nanoparticles was quite homogeneous, with their average size not exceeding 10 nm. At the same time, the precipitates at subgrain boundaries were much larger. Zr-containing nanoparticles allow one to stabilize the structure upon heating up to 400 °C, which is extremely important for heat resistant conductive alloys.
- The experimental wire alloy has UTS and EC (234 MPa and 55.6 IACS, respectively) meeting the AT2 type specification. At the same time, the maximum heating temperature was much higher (400 versus 230 °C) and mechanical properties obtained meet the AT4 type specification. The possibility of electromagnetic casting of wire rods suitable for direct cold drawing would be a substantial economic advantage.
Conflicts of Interest
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|R12-EMC casting rod (diameter 12 mm)/S2-cold rolled strip (thickness 2 mm)|
|R12-300/S2-300||Annealing at 300 °C, 3 h|
|R12-350/S2-350||R12-300/S2-300 + annealing at 350 °C, 3 h|
|R12-400/S2-400||R12-350/S2-350 + annealing at 400 °C, 3 h|
|R12-450/S2-450||R12-400/S2-400 + annealing at 450 °C, 3 h|
|R12-500/S2-500||R12-450/S2-450 + annealing at 500 °C, 3 h|
|R12-550/S2-550||R12-500/S2-500+ annealing at 550 °C, 3 h|
|R12-600/S2-600||R12-550/S2-550 + annealing at 600 °C, 3 h|
|W–Wire (diameter 3 mm) manufactured by cold drawing of as-cast EMC rod|
|W3-300||Annealing at 300 °C, 3 h|
|W3-350||W300 + annealing at 350 °C, 3 h|
|W3-400||W350 + annealing at 400 °C, 3 h|
|Alloy||Maximal Temperature of Heating, °C||UTS,|
|400||234 ± 5||207 ± 7||6.8 ± 0.7||31.0 ± 0.1||55.6|
|AT2/KTAL (High-Strength Thermal Resistant Aluminum Alloy)||230||225–248||-||1.5-2.0||31.347||55.0|
|AT4/XTAl (Extra Thermal Resistant Aluminum Alloy)||400||159–169||-||1.5-2.0||29.726||58.0|
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Belov, N.; Murashkin, M.; Korotkova, N.; Akopyan, T.; Timofeev, V. Structure and Properties of Al–0.6wt.%Zr Wire Alloy Manufactured by Direct Drawing of Electromagnetically Cast Wire Rod. Metals 2020, 10, 769. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10060769
Belov N, Murashkin M, Korotkova N, Akopyan T, Timofeev V. Structure and Properties of Al–0.6wt.%Zr Wire Alloy Manufactured by Direct Drawing of Electromagnetically Cast Wire Rod. Metals. 2020; 10(6):769. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10060769Chicago/Turabian Style
Belov, Nikolay, Maxim Murashkin, Natalia Korotkova, Torgom Akopyan, and Victor Timofeev. 2020. "Structure and Properties of Al–0.6wt.%Zr Wire Alloy Manufactured by Direct Drawing of Electromagnetically Cast Wire Rod" Metals 10, no. 6: 769. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10060769