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Open AccessReview

Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Precipitation-Hardened Martensitic Stainless Steels: A Review

by Le Zai 1,2,†, Chaoqun Zhang 1,*,†, Yiqiang Wang 3, Wei Guo 4,††, Daniel Wellmann 1,5, Xin Tong 2 and Yingtao Tian 5
1
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2
College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
3
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, UK
4
Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK
5
Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YW, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Le Zai and Chaoqun Zhang contribute equally to this paper.
††
Dr. Wei Guo is working at The Welding Institute (TWI) Ltd. as a Senior Project Leader.
Metals 2020, 10(2), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020255
Received: 22 December 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 10 February 2020 / Published: 14 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Powder-Bed Fusion Processes)
Martensitic stainless steels are widely used in industries due to their high strength and good corrosion resistance performance. Precipitation-hardened (PH) martensitic stainless steels feature very high strength compared with other stainless steels, around 3-4 times the strength of austenitic stainless steels such as 304 and 316. However, the poor workability due to the high strength and hardness induced by precipitation hardening limits the extensive utilization of PH stainless steels as structural components of complex shapes. Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is an attractive additive manufacturing technology, which not only exhibits the advantages of producing complex and precise parts with a short lead time, but also avoids or reduces the subsequent machining process. In this review, the microstructures of martensitic stainless steels in the as-built state, as well as the effects of process parameters, building atmosphere, and heat treatments on the microstructures, are reviewed. Then, the characteristics of defects in the as-built state and the causes are specifically analyzed. Afterward, the effect of process parameters and heat treatment conditions on mechanical properties are summarized and reviewed. Finally, the remaining issues and suggestions on future research on L-PBF of martensitic precipitation-hardened stainless steels are put forward. View Full-Text
Keywords: precipitation-hardened stainless steels; 17–4 stainless steel; laser powder bed fusion; selective laser melting; microstructure; ferrite; building atmosphere; defects; heat treatment precipitation-hardened stainless steels; 17–4 stainless steel; laser powder bed fusion; selective laser melting; microstructure; ferrite; building atmosphere; defects; heat treatment
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Zai, L.; Zhang, C.; Wang, Y.; Guo, W.; Wellmann, D.; Tong, X.; Tian, Y. Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Precipitation-Hardened Martensitic Stainless Steels: A Review. Metals 2020, 10, 255.

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