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Article

The Mini Blast Furnace Process: An Efficient Reactor for Green Pig Iron Production Using Charcoal and Hydrogen-Rich Gas: A Study of Cases

1
Graduate Program on Metallurgical Engineering, Federal Fluminense University, Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro 27255-125, Brazil
2
IMRAM-Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan
3
Federal Center for Technological Education Celso Suckow da Fonseca, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro 23953-030, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111501
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 4 November 2020 / Accepted: 8 November 2020 / Published: 11 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Prospects of Steelmaking Towards the Year 2050)
The mini blast furnace process is an efficient route to produce pig iron based on the burden with granulated charcoal. New, improved technologies have recently been introduced in the mini blast furnace process, such as pulverized charcoal and gas injections, new burden materials, and peripheral devices that improve the overall process efficiency. In this paper, we revise the new injection possibilities and discuss new aspects for further developments. The analysis is carried out with a comprehensive multiphase multicomponent mathematical model using mass, momentum, and energy conservation principles coupled with the rate equations for chemical reactions, multiphase momentum, and heat exchanges. We analyze new technological possibilities for the enhancement of this process as follows: (i) a base case of pulverized charcoal injection with industrial data comparison; (ii) a set of scenarios with raceway injections, combining pulverized charcoal with hydrogen-rich fuel gas, replacing granular charcoal in the burden; (iii) a set of scenarios with hydrogen-rich gas injection at the shaft level, replacing reducing gas in the granular zone of the reactor; and the possible combination of both methodologies. The simulated scenarios showed that a considerable decrease in granular charcoal consumption in the burden materials could be replaced by combining a pulverized charcoal injection of 150 kg/tHM and increasing rich gas injections and oxygen enrichment values, decreasing the specific blast injection and granular charcoal. The productivity of the mini blast furnace process was increased for all scenarios compared with the reference case. We review the aspects of these operational conditions and present an outlook for improvements on the process efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: mini blast furnace; charcoal; hydrogen; mathematical model; gas injection; kinetic models; self-reducing burden mini blast furnace; charcoal; hydrogen; mathematical model; gas injection; kinetic models; self-reducing burden
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MDPI and ACS Style

Adilson de Castro, J.; Medeiros, G.A.d.; Oliveira, E.M.d.; de Campos, M.F.; Nogami, H. The Mini Blast Furnace Process: An Efficient Reactor for Green Pig Iron Production Using Charcoal and Hydrogen-Rich Gas: A Study of Cases. Metals 2020, 10, 1501. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111501

AMA Style

Adilson de Castro J, Medeiros GAd, Oliveira EMd, de Campos MF, Nogami H. The Mini Blast Furnace Process: An Efficient Reactor for Green Pig Iron Production Using Charcoal and Hydrogen-Rich Gas: A Study of Cases. Metals. 2020; 10(11):1501. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111501

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adilson de Castro, Jose, Giulio A.d. Medeiros, Elizabeth M.d. Oliveira, Marcos F. de Campos, and Hiroshi Nogami. 2020. "The Mini Blast Furnace Process: An Efficient Reactor for Green Pig Iron Production Using Charcoal and Hydrogen-Rich Gas: A Study of Cases" Metals 10, no. 11: 1501. https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111501

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