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Open AccessArticle

A Qualitative Investigation of Music Use among Amateur and Semi-Professional Golfers

Department of Educational Psychology and Learning Systems, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
Department of Exercise Science, Springfield College, Springfield, MA 01109, USA
School of Social Work, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725, USA
Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2019, 7(3), 60;
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Music in Sport and Exercise)
Music use in golf receives minimal attention from both applied and empirical perspectives. Golfers, coaches, and sport psychology practitioners alike may benefit from understanding and utilizing music within their work. Since music use in golf has become an increasingly common practice, the purpose of the current study was to investigate current music use among golfers using a qualitative approach. Researchers aimed to identify potential psychological and physiological effects derived from music use during golf practice and pre-performance, given the limited empirical research in this area to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten amateur and semi-professional golfers (five male, five female, Mage = 22.9 years, SD = 5.04 years). Consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology was used to analyze the interview data. Six domains emerged from the CQR analysis regarding participants’ self-reported music use in golf: tempo, attention, physiological regulation, psychological regulation, effects of music on performance perceptions, and context (to use or not to use). Given the capacity of carefully selected music to elicit profound affective, neurophysiological, and behavioral responses, there is clear potential for mental performance consultants to utilize music in working with golfers in training contexts. Implications, caveats, and future research recommendations are provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: music; golf; tempo; attention focus; mood regulation music; golf; tempo; attention focus; mood regulation
MDPI and ACS Style

Gabana, N.T.; Hutchinson, J.; Beauchemin, J.; Powless, M.; Cawthra, J.; Halterman, A.; Steinfeldt, J. A Qualitative Investigation of Music Use among Amateur and Semi-Professional Golfers. Sports 2019, 7, 60.

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