Next Article in Journal
Kinetic Analysis of Swimming Flip-Turn Push-Off Techniques
Next Article in Special Issue
Gastrocnemius Medialis Architectural Properties at Rest and During Stretching in Female Athletes with Different Flexibility Training Background
Previous Article in Journal
The Magical Horizontal Force Muscle? A Preliminary Study Examining the “Force-Vector” Theory
Previous Article in Special Issue
Physiological Responses of Continuous and Intermittent Swimming at Critical Speed and Maximum Lactate Steady State in Children and Adolescent Swimmers
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sports 2019, 7(2), 31;

VO2FITTING: A Free and Open-Source Software for Modelling Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Swimming and other Exercise Modalities

Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto 4200-450, Portugal
Porto Biomechanics Laboratory (LABIOMEP), University of Porto, Porto 4200-450, Portugal
CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília 70040-031, Brazil
CESPU, Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies (IINFACTS), Gandra PRD 4585-116, Portugal
Portugal Football School, Portuguese Football Federation, Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo 1495-433, Portugal
Aquatic Sports Research Group, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 90690-200, Brazil
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2617, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Responses During Exercise)
PDF [6404 KB, uploaded 28 February 2019]


The assessment of oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics is a valuable non-invasive way to evaluate cardiorespiratory and metabolic response to exercise. The aim of the study was to develop, describe and evaluate an online VO2 fitting tool (VO2FITTING) for dynamically editing, processing, filtering and modelling VO2 responses to exercise. VO2FITTING was developed in Shiny, a web application framework for R language. Validation VO2 datasets with both noisy and non-noisy data were developed and applied to widely-used models (n = 7) for describing different intensity transitions to verify concurrent validity. Subsequently, we then conducted an experiment with age-group swimmers as an example, illustrating how VO2FITTING can be used to model VO2 kinetics. Perfect fits were observed, and parameter estimates perfectly matched the known inputted values for all available models (standard error = 0; p < 0.001). The VO2FITTING is a valid, free and open-source software for characterizing VO2 kinetics in exercise, which was developed to help the research and performance analysis communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; software; free; open-source; oxygen uptake kinetics; modelling exercise; software; free; open-source; oxygen uptake kinetics; modelling

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zacca, R.; Azevedo, R.; Figueiredo, P.; Vilas-Boas, J.P.; Castro, F.A.S.; Pyne, D.B.; Fernandes, R.J. VO2FITTING: A Free and Open-Source Software for Modelling Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Swimming and other Exercise Modalities. Sports 2019, 7, 31.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sports EISSN 2075-4663 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top