Next Article in Journal
VO2FITTING: A Free and Open-Source Software for Modelling Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Swimming and other Exercise Modalities
Next Article in Special Issue
Rate of Force Development and Muscle Architecture after Fast and Slow Velocity Eccentric Training
Previous Article in Journal
Drop Jump Asymmetry is Associated with Reduced Sprint and Change-of-Direction Speed Performance in Adult Female Soccer Players
Previous Article in Special Issue
Loading Patterns of Rubber-Based Resistance Bands across Distributors
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

The Magical Horizontal Force Muscle? A Preliminary Study Examining the “Force-Vector” Theory

Research conducted at School of Sport, Health and Applied Science, St. Mary’s University, Twickenham TW1 4SX, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2019, 7(2), 30;
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
The force-vector theory contends that horizontal exercises are more specific to horizontal sports skills. In this context, the focus is on horizontal force production relative to the global coordinate frame. However, according to the principle of dynamic correspondence, the direction of force relative to the athlete is more important, and thus the basis for the force-vector theory is flawed. The purpose of this study was therefore to test the force-vector theory. According to the force-vector theory, hip thrust is a horizontally loaded exercise, and so hip thrust training would be expected to create greater improvements in horizontal jump performance than vertical jump performance. Eleven collegiate female athletes aged 18–24 years completed a 14-week hip thrust training programme. Pre and post testing was used to measure the following: vertical squat jump, vertical countermovement jump, horizontal squat jump, horizontal countermovement jump and hip thrust 3 repetition maximum (3RM). Subjects improved their 3 repetition maximum hip thrust performance by 33.0% (d = 1.399, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.784) and their vertical and horizontal jump performance (improvements ranged from 5.4–7.7%; d = 0.371–0.477, p = 0.004, η2 = 0.585). However, there were no differences in the magnitude of the improvement between horizontal and vertical jumping (p = 0.561, η2 = 0.035). The results of this study are contrary to the predictions of the force-vector theory. Furthermore, this paper concludes with an analysis of the force-vector theory, presenting the mechanical inconsistencies in the theory. Coaches should use the well established principle of dynamic correspondence in order to assess the mechanical similarity of exercises to sports skills. View Full-Text
Keywords: hip thrust; vertical jumping; jump training; specificity; dynamic correspondence hip thrust; vertical jumping; jump training; specificity; dynamic correspondence
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fitzpatrick, D.A.; Cimadoro, G.; Cleather, D.J. The Magical Horizontal Force Muscle? A Preliminary Study Examining the “Force-Vector” Theory. Sports 2019, 7, 30.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop