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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Different Combinations of Concentric and Eccentric Resistance Training Programs on Traditional and Alternative Hamstrings-to-Quadriceps Ratios

1
Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research (CESSR), School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Dr, Joondalup 6027, Australia
2
Exercise Research Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Physioteraphy and Dance, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Felizardo 750, Porto Alegre 90690-200, Brazil
3
Center for Sport Performance and Human Performance Lab, Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, 800 N State College Blvd, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2019, 7(10), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7100221
Received: 21 September 2019 / Revised: 7 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 12 October 2019
Resistance training is often recommended for combined increases in traditional and alternative hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratios in order to reduce knee strength imbalance and associated hamstrings and knee ligament injury risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentric and eccentric resistance training programs on traditional and alternative H:Q ratios. Forty male volunteers were assigned to one of 4 groups: concentric quadriceps and concentric hamstrings (CON/CON, n = 10), eccentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (ECC/ECC, n = 10), concentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (CON/ECC, n = 10), or no training (control (CNTRL), n = 10). Traditional conventional (CR) and functional (FR), alternative rate of torque development (RTD), muscle size (MS), and muscle activation (MA) H:Q ratios were measured before and after six weeks of unilateral nondominant knee extension–flexion resistance training performed on an isokinetic dynamometer. The ECC/ECC training significantly increased FR (pre = 0.75 ± 0.11; post = 0.85 ± 0.15), whereas the lack of training (CNTRL) decreased the RTD H:Q ratio (pre = 1.10 ± 0.67; post = 0.73 ± 0.33). There were no differences between groups for the other traditional and alternative ratios following resistance training protocols. These findings suggest eccentric exercise for quadriceps and hamstrings as the most beneficial training program for inducing increases in the traditional FR. However, different resistance training strategies may be needed to also elicit increases in the alternative RTD, MS, and MA H:Q ratios for fully restoring muscle balance and reducing potential hamstrings and knee ligament injury risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: muscle size; rate of torque development; muscle activation; peak torque; H:Q ratio; muscle imbalance; resistance training; injury prevention muscle size; rate of torque development; muscle activation; peak torque; H:Q ratio; muscle imbalance; resistance training; injury prevention
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Ruas, C.V.; Pinto, R.S.; Haff, G.G.; Lima, C.D.; Brown, L.E. Effects of Different Combinations of Concentric and Eccentric Resistance Training Programs on Traditional and Alternative Hamstrings-to-Quadriceps Ratios. Sports 2019, 7, 221.

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