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Epigenomes 2017, 1(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes1030019

Regulation and Functional Significance of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Cancer

Department of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute (WIA), 38 Sardar Patel Road, Chennai 600036, India
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Academic Editor: Muller Fabbri
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract

Epigenetic modes of gene regulation are important for physiological conditions and its aberrant changes can lead to disease like cancer. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is an oxidized form of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) catalyzed by Ten Eleven Translocation (TET) enzymes. 5hmC is considered to be a demethylation intermediate and is emerging as a stable and functional base modification. The global loss of 5hmC level is commonly observed in cancers and tumorigenic germline mutations in IDH, SDH and FH are found to be inhibiting TET activity. Although a global loss of 5hmC is characteristic in cancers, locus-specific 5hmC gain implicates selective gene expression control. The definitive role of 5hmC as a tumor suppressing or promoting modification can be deduced by identifying locus-specific 5hmC modification in different types of cancer. Determining the genes carrying 5hmC modifications and its selective variation will open up new therapeutic targets. This review outlines the role of global and locus-specific changes of 5hmC in cancers and the possible mechanisms underlying such changes. We have described major cellular factors that influence 5hmC levels and highlighted the significance of 5hmC in tumor micro environmental condition like hypoxia. View Full-Text
Keywords: 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC); cancer epigenetics; factors affecting 5hmC; 5hmC regulation in cancer; Ten Eleven Translocation (TET) 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC); cancer epigenetics; factors affecting 5hmC; 5hmC regulation in cancer; Ten Eleven Translocation (TET)
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Arvinden, V.R.; Deva Magendhra Rao, A.K.; Rajkumar, T.; Mani, S. Regulation and Functional Significance of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Cancer. Epigenomes 2017, 1, 19.

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