Next Article in Journal
A Point Mutation V419L in the Sodium Channel Gene from Natural Populations of Aedes aegypti Is Involved in Resistance to λ-Cyhalothrin in Colombia
Previous Article in Journal
Roadside Survey of Ants on Oahu, Hawaii
Previous Article in Special Issue
Successful Community-Based Conservation: The Story of Millbank and Pterourus (Papilio) homerus
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Insects 2018, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9010022

Enlightening Butterfly Conservation Efforts: The Importance of Natural Lighting for Butterfly Behavioral Ecology and Conservation

Department of Biology and Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Butterfly Conservation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3918 KB, uploaded 12 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Light is arguably the most important abiotic factor for living organisms. Organisms evolved under specific lighting conditions and their behavior, physiology, and ecology are inexorably linked to light. Understanding light effects on biology could not be more important as present anthropogenic effects are greatly changing the light environments in which animals exist. The two biggest anthropogenic contributors changing light environments are: (1) anthropogenic lighting at night (i.e., light pollution); and (2) deforestation and the built environment. I highlight light importance for butterfly behavior, physiology, and ecology and stress the importance of including light as a conservation factor for conserving butterfly biodiversity. This review focuses on four parts: (1) Introducing the nature and extent of light. (2) Visual and non-visual light reception in butterflies. (3) Implications of unnatural lighting for butterflies across several different behavioral and ecological contexts. (4). Future directions for quantifying the threat of unnatural lighting on butterflies and simple approaches to mitigate unnatural light impacts on butterflies. I urge future research to include light as a factor and end with the hopeful thought that controlling many unnatural light conditions is simply done by flipping a switch. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthropogenic factors; light pollution; polarized light; sensory pollution anthropogenic factors; light pollution; polarized light; sensory pollution
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Seymoure, B.M. Enlightening Butterfly Conservation Efforts: The Importance of Natural Lighting for Butterfly Behavioral Ecology and Conservation. Insects 2018, 9, 22.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Insects EISSN 2075-4450 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top