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Daily Rhythms in Mosquitoes and Their Consequences for Malaria Transmission

Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK
Institutes of Evolutionary Biology, and Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK
Invincea Labs LLC, Arlington, VA 22203, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kenneth Wilson, Fleur Ponton, Sheena Cotter and Brian T. Forschler
Insects 2016, 7(2), 14;
Received: 22 November 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
PDF [1821 KB, uploaded 14 April 2016]


The 24-h day involves cycles in environmental factors that impact organismal fitness. This is thought to select for organisms to regulate their temporal biology accordingly, through circadian and diel rhythms. In addition to rhythms in abiotic factors (such as light and temperature), biotic factors, including ecological interactions, also follow daily cycles. How daily rhythms shape, and are shaped by, interactions between organisms is poorly understood. Here, we review an emerging area, namely the causes and consequences of daily rhythms in the interactions between vectors, their hosts and the parasites they transmit. We focus on mosquitoes, malaria parasites and vertebrate hosts, because this system offers the opportunity to integrate from genetic and molecular mechanisms to population dynamics and because disrupting rhythms offers a novel avenue for disease control. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anopheles; chronobiology; circadian; diel; diurnal; nocturnal; Plasmodium Anopheles; chronobiology; circadian; diel; diurnal; nocturnal; Plasmodium

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Rund, S.S.C.; O’Donnell, A.J.; Gentile, J.E.; Reece, S.E. Daily Rhythms in Mosquitoes and Their Consequences for Malaria Transmission. Insects 2016, 7, 14.

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