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Review

Varroa destructor from the Laboratory to the Field: Control, Biocontrol and IPM Perspectives—A Review

1
Laboratoire Evolution et Diversité Biologique, UMR5174, CNRS-Université de Toulouse III-IRD, INU Jean-François Champollion, Université Paul Sabatier, 31077 Toulouse, France
2
M2i Biocontrol–Entreprise SAS, 46140 Parnac, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Guillaume Minard and Patricia Gibert
Insects 2021, 12(9), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090800
Received: 4 August 2021 / Revised: 30 August 2021 / Accepted: 2 September 2021 / Published: 7 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects Ecology and Biocontrol Applications)
Varroa destructor is a parasitic organism feeding and living among honeybees. It transmits viruses like the Deformed Wing Virus which can lead to the decline and death of the colony. Many treatments have been developed over the years like formamidine amitraz, pyrethroid tau-fluvalinate, organophosphate coumaphos or even acids like formic and oxalic to control the spread of the mite. However, none of this solution provides long-term sustainability for honeybees and no resistance from V. destructor. Therefore, the development of alternative tools remains open. This will require the combination of both laboratory and field results through an integrative approach based on the identification of V. destructor health biomarkers. Here we review what has been done and what can be done from the laboratory to the field against the parasitic pressure held on honeybees.
Varroa destructor is a real challenger for beekeepers and scientists: fragile out of the hive, tenacious inside a bee colony. From all the research done on the topic, we have learned that a better understanding of this organism in its relationship with the bee but also for itself is necessary. Its biology relies mostly on semiochemicals for reproduction, nutrition, or orientation. Many treatments have been developed over the years based on hard or soft acaricides or even on biocontrol techniques. To date, no real sustainable solution exists to reduce the pressure of the mite without creating resistances or harming honeybees. Consequently, the development of alternative disruptive tools against the parasitic life cycle remains open. It requires the combination of both laboratory and field results through a holistic approach based on health biomarkers. Here, we advocate for a more integrative vision of V. destructor research, where in vitro and field studies are more systematically compared and compiled. Therefore, after a brief state-of-the-art about the mite’s life cycle, we discuss what has been done and what can be done from the laboratory to the field against V. destructor through an integrative approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: Varroa destructor; honeybees; integrated pest management; biocontrol; holistic approach Varroa destructor; honeybees; integrated pest management; biocontrol; holistic approach
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vilarem, C.; Piou, V.; Vogelweith, F.; Vétillard, A. Varroa destructor from the Laboratory to the Field: Control, Biocontrol and IPM Perspectives—A Review. Insects 2021, 12, 800. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090800

AMA Style

Vilarem C, Piou V, Vogelweith F, Vétillard A. Varroa destructor from the Laboratory to the Field: Control, Biocontrol and IPM Perspectives—A Review. Insects. 2021; 12(9):800. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090800

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vilarem, Caroline, Vincent Piou, Fanny Vogelweith, and Angélique Vétillard. 2021. "Varroa destructor from the Laboratory to the Field: Control, Biocontrol and IPM Perspectives—A Review" Insects 12, no. 9: 800. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090800

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