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Article

Polyphenols as Food Supplement Improved Food Consumption and Longevity of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) Intoxicated by Pesticide Thiacloprid

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Department of Zoology, Fisheries, Hydrobiology and Apiculture, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Department of Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Studentska 1668, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
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Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Studentska 1668, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
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Department of Animal Breeding, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ivana Tlak Gajger and Franco Mutinelli
Insects 2021, 12(7), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070572
Received: 19 May 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
Worldwide, mass losses of honey bee colonies are being observed more frequently. Poor nutrition may cause honey bees to be more susceptible to pesticides and more vulnerable to diseases, and as a direct result of this, honey bee colonies can collapse. Another cause of mass bee colony collapse that is no less important is the use of pesticides. The level of toxicity of most pesticides is greatly affected by nutrient uptake. In addition, the honey bee genome is known to be specific for a significantly lower number of genes associated with detoxification compared with other insect species. Intake of phenolic and flavonoid substances in food can lead to increased expression of genes encoding detoxification enzymes in bees. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated in vitro the effect of phenolic and flavonoid substances on bee mortality and food consumption in the case of intoxication by pesticide thiacloprid. The results of this study showed a significant positive effect on honey bee survival rate as well as increased food intake. In addition, the expression level of genes encoding detoxification enzymes was determined.
Malnutrition is one of the main problems related to the global mass collapse of honey bee colonies, because in honey bees, malnutrition is associated with deterioration of the immune system and increased pesticide susceptibility. Another important cause of mass bee colonies losses is the use of pesticides. Therefore, the goal of this study was to verify the influence of polyphenols on longevity, food consumption, and cytochrome P450 gene expression in worker bees intoxicated by thiacloprid. The tests were carried out in vitro under artificial conditions (caged bees). A conclusively lower mortality rate and, in parallel, a higher average food intake, were observed in intoxicated bees treated using a mixture of phenolic acids and flavonoids compared to untreated intoxicated bees. This was probably caused by increased detoxification capacity caused by increased expression level of genes encoding the cytochrome P450 enzyme in the bees. Therefore, the addition of polyphenols into bee nutrition is probably able to positively affect the detoxification capacity of bees, which is often reduced by the impact of malnutrition resulting from degradation of the environment and common beekeeping management. View Full-Text
Keywords: cage experiments; cytochrome P450; detoxification; food intake; mortality rate cage experiments; cytochrome P450; detoxification; food intake; mortality rate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hýbl, M.; Mráz, P.; Šipoš, J.; Hoštičková, I.; Bohatá, A.; Čurn, V.; Kopec, T. Polyphenols as Food Supplement Improved Food Consumption and Longevity of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) Intoxicated by Pesticide Thiacloprid. Insects 2021, 12, 572. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070572

AMA Style

Hýbl M, Mráz P, Šipoš J, Hoštičková I, Bohatá A, Čurn V, Kopec T. Polyphenols as Food Supplement Improved Food Consumption and Longevity of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) Intoxicated by Pesticide Thiacloprid. Insects. 2021; 12(7):572. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070572

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hýbl, Marian, Petr Mráz, Jan Šipoš, Irena Hoštičková, Andrea Bohatá, Vladislav Čurn, and Tomáš Kopec. 2021. "Polyphenols as Food Supplement Improved Food Consumption and Longevity of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) Intoxicated by Pesticide Thiacloprid" Insects 12, no. 7: 572. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070572

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