Polyphenols as Food Supplement Improved Food Consumption and Longevity of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) Intoxicated by Pesticide Thiacloprid
Department of Zoology, Fisheries, Hydrobiology and Apiculture, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Studentska 1668, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Studentska 1668, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
Department of Animal Breeding, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ivana Tlak Gajger and Franco Mutinelli
Received: 19 May 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
Worldwide, mass losses of honey bee colonies are being observed more frequently. Poor nutrition may cause honey bees to be more susceptible to pesticides and more vulnerable to diseases, and as a direct result of this, honey bee colonies can collapse. Another cause of mass bee colony collapse that is no less important is the use of pesticides. The level of toxicity of most pesticides is greatly affected by nutrient uptake. In addition, the honey bee genome is known to be specific for a significantly lower number of genes associated with detoxification compared with other insect species. Intake of phenolic and flavonoid substances in food can lead to increased expression of genes encoding detoxification enzymes in bees. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated in vitro the effect of phenolic and flavonoid substances on bee mortality and food consumption in the case of intoxication by pesticide thiacloprid. The results of this study showed a significant positive effect on honey bee survival rate as well as increased food intake. In addition, the expression level of genes encoding detoxification enzymes was determined.