A Literature Review of Biological and Bio-Rational Control Strategies for Slugs: Current Research and Future Prospects
Crop Health and Protection Limited (CHAP), York Biotech Campus, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK
School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gordon Port and Rory McDonnell
Received: 29 April 2021 / Revised: 1 June 2021 / Accepted: 2 June 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
Terrestrial molluscs (slugs and snails) pose a major threat to agriculture, causing severe yield losses in a wide range of crops worldwide. The limited number of chemical molluscicides on the market, along with their negative impact on nontarget organisms and the environment, make mollusc control a real concern for growers and farmers. Therefore, the exploration of alternative, effective and eco-friendly control measures has become a dire need. This study focuses on slugs, as opposed to snails, and reviews the literature on three natural enemies of slugs, namely nematodes, carabid beetles and marsh flies, along with various natural products with slug control potential (for example, essential oils), and this study contributes to providing a comprehensive understanding of how slugs can be better controlled by using nonchemical measures. In doing so, this study also draws attention to the limitations of current research and discusses some important future research avenues in order to develop effective nonchemical slug control measures.