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Review

Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) in Europe: Current Status and Sustainable Pest Management

1
Department for Agricultural Zoology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Veneto Agricoltura, Agricultural Research Department, 35020 Legnaro, PD, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kent M. Daane
Insects 2021, 12(3), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030195
Received: 1 January 2021 / Revised: 11 February 2021 / Accepted: 21 February 2021 / Published: 25 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corn Rootworm: Biology, Ecology, Behavior and Integrated Management)
Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, also known as western corn rootworm (WCR), is a maize-specific pest that has been a serious threat in Europe since the mid-1990s. Between 1995 and 2010, European countries were involved in international projects to plan pest control strategies. However, since 2011, collaborative efforts have declined and the overview of knowledge on WCR is in great need of updating. Therefore, a review of scientific papers published between 2008 and 2020, in addition to direct interviews with experts responsible for WCR management in several European countries, was conducted to (1) summarize the research conducted over the last 12 years and (2) describe the current WCR distribution and population in the EU, and the management strategies implemented. A considerable amount of new knowledge has been gained over the last 12 years, which has contributed to the development of pest management strategies applicable in EU agricultural systems. There is no EU country reporting economic damage on a large scale. In many countries, solutions based on crop rotation are regularly implemented, avoiding insecticide use. Therefore, WCR has not become as serious a pest as was expected when it was discovered in much of Europe.
Western corn rootworm (WCR), or Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, became a very serious quarantine maize pest in Europe in the mid-1990s. Between 1995 and 2010, European countries were involved in international projects to share information and plan common research for integrated pest management (IPM) implementation. Since 2011, however, common efforts have declined, and an overview of WCR population spread, density, and research is in serious need of update. Therefore, we retained that it was necessary to (1) summarize the research activities carried out in the last 12 years in various countries and the research topics addressed, and analyze how these activities have contributed to IPM for WCR and (2) present the current distribution of WCR in the EU and analyze the current population levels in different European countries, focusing on different management strategies. A review of scientific papers published from 2008 to 2020, in addition to direct interviews with experts in charge of WCR management in a range of European countries, was conducted. Over the past 12 years, scientists in Europe have continued their research activities to investigate various aspects of WCR management by implementing several approaches to WCR control. A considerable amount of new knowledge has been produced, contributing to the development of pest management strategies applicable in EU farming systems. Among the 10 EU countries analyzed, there is no country reporting economic damage on a large scale. Thanks to intensive research leading to specific agricultural practices and the EU Common Agricultural Policy, there are crop-rotation-based solutions that can adequately control this pest avoiding insecticide use. View Full-Text
Keywords: IPM; WCR distribution; WCR damage; crop-rotation-based solutions; agronomic alternative; eradication; containment IPM; WCR distribution; WCR damage; crop-rotation-based solutions; agronomic alternative; eradication; containment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bažok, R.; Lemić, D.; Chiarini, F.; Furlan, L. Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) in Europe: Current Status and Sustainable Pest Management. Insects 2021, 12, 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030195

AMA Style

Bažok R, Lemić D, Chiarini F, Furlan L. Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) in Europe: Current Status and Sustainable Pest Management. Insects. 2021; 12(3):195. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030195

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bažok, Renata, Darija Lemić, Francesca Chiarini, and Lorenzo Furlan. 2021. "Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) in Europe: Current Status and Sustainable Pest Management" Insects 12, no. 3: 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030195

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