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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Non-Lethal High-Temperature Stress on Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) Larval Development and Offspring

1
Forewarning and Management of Agricultural and Forestry Pests, Hubei Engineering Technology Center, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, Hubei, China
2
Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11030159
Received: 16 January 2020 / Revised: 24 February 2020 / Accepted: 28 February 2020 / Published: 1 March 2020
Throughout China, the dipteran pest Bradysia odoriphaga significantly reduces Chinese chive production; therefore, identifying conditions that influence its growth and development is crucial for developing ecological regulation strategies. In this study, different non-lethal high temperatures and treatment durations were used to stress the third-instar larvae of B. odoriphaga, and the effects of this treatment on their growth and offspring were recorded and analyzed. The results showed that the average larval mortality increased with increased temperature and prolonged exposure times. After stress treatment at 40 °C for 2 h, 100% of larvae died within 5 days, which was not significantly different from the 5-day average larval mortality (90.66%) after stress at 37 °C for 4 h, but significantly higher than the 5-day average larval mortality (72.00%) after stress at 40 °C for 1 h. After 5 days, all still-living larvae could pupate, and there was no significant difference in average pupal period after pupation. However, the eclosion rate of subsequent pupae decreased with increased temperature and prolonged exposure times, and were only 43.00% and 42.73% after larvae were stressed at 37 °C for 4 h and 40 °C for 1 h, respectively. After eclosion into adults, there was no significant difference in the lifespan of unmated female adults, while the lifespan of unmated male adults was significantly reduced to 1.67 d and 2 d after larvae were stressed at 37 °C for 4 h and 40 °C for 1 h, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in male and female adult longevity after mating. There was no significant difference in oviposition or egg hatchability. This indicates that non-lethal high temperature at 37 °C for 4 h can hinder development and allow control of B. odoriphaga. There is great potential for non-lethal high temperature to be applied in the field to control agricultural pests. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bradysia odoriphaga; Chinese chives; high temperature; next generation; growth Bradysia odoriphaga; Chinese chives; high temperature; next generation; growth
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Shi, C.; Zhang, S.; Hu, J.; Zhang, Y. Effects of Non-Lethal High-Temperature Stress on Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) Larval Development and Offspring. Insects 2020, 11, 159.

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