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Galaxies 2018, 6(1), 19;

The Third Quantization: To Tunnel or Not to Tunnel?

Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain
Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Spain
Institute of Physics, University of Szczecin, Wielkopolska 15, 70-451 Szczecin, Poland
Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid, Spain
Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellín, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmology and the Quantum Vacuum)
PDF [549 KB, uploaded 2 February 2018]


Within the framework of the third quantization, we consider the possibility that an initially recollapsing baby universe can enter a stage of near de Sitter inflation by tunnelling through a Euclidean wormhole that connects the recollapsing and inflationary geometries. We present the solutions for the evolution of the scale factor in the Lorentzian and Euclidean regions as well as the probability that the baby universe indeed crosses the wormhole when it reaches its maximum size. View Full-Text
Keywords: quantum cosmology; multiverse; Euclidean wormholes quantum cosmology; multiverse; Euclidean wormholes

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Bouhmadi-López, M.; Krämer, M.; Morais, J.; Robles-Pérez, S. The Third Quantization: To Tunnel or Not to Tunnel? Galaxies 2018, 6, 19.

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