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Article

Ionization-Gasdynamic Simulations of Wind-Blown Nebulae around Massive Stars

Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., ERC 569, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Academic Editors: Quentin A. Parker, Martín Guerrero and Noam Soker
Galaxies 2022, 10(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies10010037
Received: 20 January 2022 / Revised: 12 February 2022 / Accepted: 15 February 2022 / Published: 17 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae 8e)
Using a code that employs a self-consistent method for computing the effects of photo-ionization on circumstellar gas dynamics, we model the formation of wind-driven nebulae around massive stars. We take into account changes in stellar properties and mass-loss over the star’s evolution. Our simulations show how various properties, such as the density and ionization fraction, change throughout the evolution of the star. The multi-dimensional simulations reveal the presence of strong ionization front instabilities in the main-sequence phase, similar to those seen in galactic ionization fronts. Hydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces lead to the formation of filaments and clumps that are continually being stripped off and mixed with the low density interior. Even though the winds start out as completely radial, the spherical symmetry is quickly destroyed, and the shocked wind region is manifestly asymmetrical. The simulations demonstrate that it is important to include the effects of the photoionizing photons from the star, and simulations that do not include this may fail to reproduce the observed density profile and ionization structure of wind-blown bubbles around massive stars. View Full-Text
Keywords: ionization; gasdynamics; wind-bubbles; instabilities; turbulence; shock waves; stellar winds; massive stars ionization; gasdynamics; wind-bubbles; instabilities; turbulence; shock waves; stellar winds; massive stars
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dwarkadas, V.V. Ionization-Gasdynamic Simulations of Wind-Blown Nebulae around Massive Stars. Galaxies 2022, 10, 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies10010037

AMA Style

Dwarkadas VV. Ionization-Gasdynamic Simulations of Wind-Blown Nebulae around Massive Stars. Galaxies. 2022; 10(1):37. https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies10010037

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dwarkadas, Vikram V. 2022. "Ionization-Gasdynamic Simulations of Wind-Blown Nebulae around Massive Stars" Galaxies 10, no. 1: 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies10010037

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