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Open AccessReview

Using the Immunophenotype to Predict Response to Biologic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis

by Ben Mulhearn 1,2,3,*, Anne Barton 2,3,4 and Sebastien Viatte 1,2,4
1
Manchester Collaborative Centre for Inflammation Research (MCCIR), Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9NT, UK
2
Centre for Genetics and Genomics Versus Arthritis, Division of Musculoskeletal and Dermatological Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
3
Kellgren Centre for Rheumatology, NIHR Manchester BRC, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL, UK
4
Lydia Becker Institute of Immunology and Inflammation, Division of Musculoskeletal and Dermatological Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9NT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Pers. Med. 2019, 9(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm9040046
Received: 22 August 2019 / Revised: 18 September 2019 / Accepted: 19 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a key mediator of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, and its discovery led to the development of highly successful anti-TNF therapy. Subsequently, other biologic drugs targeting immune pathways, namely interleukin-6 blockade, B cell depletion, and T cell co-stimulation blockade, have been developed. Not all patients respond to a biologic drug, leading to a knowledge gap between biologic therapies available and the confident prediction of response. So far, genetic studies have failed to uncover clinically informative biomarkers to predict response. Given that the targets of biologics are immune pathways, immunological study has become all the more pertinent. Furthermore, advances in single-cell technology have enabled the characterization of many leucocyte subsets. Studying the blood immunophenotype may therefore, define biomarker profiles relevant to each individual patient’s disease and treatment outcome. This review summarises our current understanding of how immune biomarkers might be able to predict treatment response to biologic drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunology; rheumatoid arthritis; T cells; cytokines; biologic drugs; precision medicine; biomarkers immunology; rheumatoid arthritis; T cells; cytokines; biologic drugs; precision medicine; biomarkers
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Mulhearn, B.; Barton, A.; Viatte, S. Using the Immunophenotype to Predict Response to Biologic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis. J. Pers. Med. 2019, 9, 46.

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