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J. Pers. Med. 2017, 7(3), 8;

Dairy Product Consumption Interacts with Glucokinase (GCK) Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Insulin Resistance

Endocrinology and Nephrology, CHU de Québec Research Center and the Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Québec, Canada
Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), and the School of Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Laval University, Québec, Canada
Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, CHU de Québec Research Centre and the Faculty of Pharmacy, Laval University, Québec, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
M.S.D.S. and D.C. contributed equally to this work
Academic Editors: Ahmed El-Sohemy and José M. Ordovás
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
PDF [960 KB, uploaded 31 August 2017]


Dairy product intake and a person’s genetic background have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between dairy products and genes related to T2D on glucose-insulin homeostasis parameters. A validated food frequency questionnaire, fasting blood samples, and glucokinase (GCK) genotypes were analyzed in 210 healthy participants. An interaction between rs1799884 in GCK and dairy intake on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was identified. Secondly, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) were grown in a high-glucose medium and incubated with either 1-dairy proteins: whey, caseins, and a mixture of whey and casein; and 2-four amino acids (AA) or mixtures of AA. The expression of GCK-related genes insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) was increased with whey protein isolate or hydrolysate. Individually, leucine increased IRS-1 expression, whereas isoleucine and valine decreased FASN expression. A branched-chain AA mixture decreased IRS-1 and FASN expression. In conclusion, carriers of the A allele for rs1799884 in the GCK gene may benefit from a higher intake of dairy products to maintain optimal insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the results show that whey proteins affect the expression of genes related to glucose metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy; glucose; insulin sensitivity; nutrigenomics; type 2 diabetes dairy; glucose; insulin sensitivity; nutrigenomics; type 2 diabetes

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Da Silva, M.S.; Chartrand, D.; Vohl, M.-C.; Barbier, O.; Rudkowska, I. Dairy Product Consumption Interacts with Glucokinase (GCK) Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Insulin Resistance. J. Pers. Med. 2017, 7, 8.

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