Building Capacity for Implementation Science in Precision Health and Society: Development of a Course for Professional and Graduate Students in Pharmacy
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Course Description
- Define implementation science.
- Define precision health.
- Summarize common challenges to the implementation of precision health in pharmacy practice.
- Identify and describe implementation science frameworks, models, and theories that can be used to promote implementation of precision health in pharmacy practice.
- Apply an implementation science framework, model, or theory to guide how one would tackle an implementation challenge.
- Define and describe how implementation strategies can be employed to translate precision health into practice.
- Select implementation strategies to overcome an implementation challenge in precision health research or pharmacy practice.
- Describe the types of study design that are commonly used by implementation scientists.
- List and define implementation science outcomes that can be measured to evaluate implementation.
- Select which implementation outcomes could be measured to better understand the implementation of precision health in pharmacy practice.
- Apply implementation science principles to a challenge in pharmacy practice or research.
- Use implementation science to solve practice problems and/or to answer research questions.
2.3. Course Evaluation Metrics
|Evaluation Item |
[never, 1, to always, 5]
|Overall||Section 1||Section 2||p|
|n = 17||n = 10||n = 7|
|This course was well organized.||4.71||5.00||4.60||5.00||4.86||5.00||0.57|
|The in-class activities/exercises contributed to my learning.||4.35||4.00||4.30||4.50||4.43||4.00||0.70|
|The assessments were clearly connected to the course outcomes.||4.50||5.00||4.30||5.00||4.83||5.00||0.26|
|This course challenged me to think deeply about the subject matter.||4.12||4.00||3.80||4.00||4.57||5.00||0.046|
|Overall rating [poor, 1, to excellent, 5]||3.59||4.00||3.50||4.00||3.71||4.00||0.57|
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Structure: guest speakers (n = 11)||The course brought in a lot of experts in the field to talk about their research and experience in the field. They brought in new points of view that kept the class changing.|
|Foundational nature (n = 5)||The course introduced implementation science, a fresh area to me, and the research methods introduced in class could help me conduct research on pharmacy practice/health service.|
|Structure: introduction to new material to application (n = 2)||I really liked how the course was structured, especially with the focus on foundational topics at the beginning, and then transitioning to application of those topics later in the course.|
|Structure: class cases (n = 10)||I feel like I learned a lot in this class. Some of the concepts are still a little abstract to me but I think I have built a foundation on what is implementation science. I like the in class cases as they allowed me to really put in the work and understand the class materials in a more applicable way.|
|Structure: pre-course materials (n = 8)||I appreciate that the course introduced us to various health science disciplines so that we could understand how implementation science informs research across different disciplines. I also found the pre–class modules to be helpful in teaching me important foundational concepts prior to class.|
|Structure: pre-course materials (quizzes) (n = 1)||…the quizzes at the end of each video are good ways to check my knowledge.|
|Structure: QA (n = 2)||I liked the group discussions on the various topics.|
|Structure: course-long project (n = 1)||I like how we worked on the project throughout the course of the semester. It made it very valuable to continue learning and applying knowledge.|
|Order of concepts: frameworks later (n = 5)||I think some of the course information could have been re–ordered to make the material easier to understand. I think leading with the more abstract principals like frameworks before discussing how they’re applied can be confusing.|
|Linking IS concepts (n = 1)||...the course did not do a good job of linking the different topics together until later in the semester so a majority of the time I was a little lost.|
|Linking guest speaker content to pre-class material (n = 3)||Hard to apply the guest speaker information into the context of the class.|
|Preparation of guest speakers (n = 1)||I felt like some of the presenters who came in were not really prepared to present|
|IS terminology (n = 3)||Sometimes I knew what words I was supposed to use in the class, but I had no idea what that meant in practice.|
|PowerPoints for pre-class videos available (n = 2)||I would have liked the lecture slides from the pre–class videos to be available on sakai.|
|Pre-class self quiz banks (n = 2)||For the first 3–4 quizzes, the pre–class material did not give feedback on the assessment. [Block 1]|
|Shorter class period (n = 2)||I felt like the length of the class period partially hindered learning. It was difficult to stay engaged for the full 2.5 h.|
|Make course a full semester (n = 1)||I think having this course throughout a full semester would help because this is a very broad subject and can be very specialized, so it’s hard to learn in a few weeks.|
|More discussion of cases (n = 1)||I would like more case discussion and more deep explanations about the research methods, especially the qualitative research.|
|More practice before cases (n = 1)||Some of the in–class exercises felt abstract… maybe because we had just learned the material.|
|Move pharmacy-specific guest lectures to beginning (n = 1)||I think it might be beneficial for students if the guest lectures in the beginning of the course are more focused to the intersection between implementation science and pharmacists.|
|No need for longer guest speaker seminars at end of Block 1 (n = 1)||The long [guest] lectures in the last 3 weeks didn’t help much.|
|Move cases and speakers to second half of block (n = 1)||think that the course needs to focus on learning the basics for the first half of the semester then bring in the case reports and guest speakers.|
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Roberts, M.C.; McLaughlin, J.E. Building Capacity for Implementation Science in Precision Health and Society: Development of a Course for Professional and Graduate Students in Pharmacy. J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12, 1499. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091499
Roberts MC, McLaughlin JE. Building Capacity for Implementation Science in Precision Health and Society: Development of a Course for Professional and Graduate Students in Pharmacy. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2022; 12(9):1499. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091499Chicago/Turabian Style
Roberts, Megan C., and Jacqueline E. McLaughlin. 2022. "Building Capacity for Implementation Science in Precision Health and Society: Development of a Course for Professional and Graduate Students in Pharmacy" Journal of Personalized Medicine 12, no. 9: 1499. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091499