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Previous, Current, and Future Pharmacotherapy and Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer—A Comprehensive Review

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, M. Curie 9, 85-090 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Diagnostics 2019, 9(4), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9040161
Received: 8 October 2019 / Revised: 18 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 25 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in men that usually develops slowly. Since diagnostic methods improved in the last decade and are highly precise, more cancers are diagnosed at an early stage. Active surveillance or watchful waiting are appealing approaches for men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer, and they are an antidote to the overtreatment problem and unnecessary biopsies. However, treatment depends on individual circumstances of a patient. Older hormonal therapies based on first generation antiandrogens and steroids were widely used in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients prior to the implementation of docetaxel. Nowadays, accordingly to randomized clinical trials, abiraterone, enzalutamide, apalutamide. and docetaxel became first line agents administrated in the treatment of mCRPC. Furthermore, radium-223 is an optional therapy for bone-only metastasis patients. Sipuleucel-T demonstrated an overall survival benefit. However, other novel immunotherapeutics showed limitations in monotherapy. Possible combinations of new vaccines or immune checkpoint blockers with enzalutamide, abiraterone, radium-223, or docetaxel are the subject of ongoing rivalry regarding optimal therapy of prostate cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; hormonal therapy; chemotherapy; immunotherapy; radium-223 prostate cancer; hormonal therapy; chemotherapy; immunotherapy; radium-223
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Malinowski, B.; Wiciński, M.; Musiała, N.; Osowska, I.; Szostak, M. Previous, Current, and Future Pharmacotherapy and Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer—A Comprehensive Review. Diagnostics 2019, 9, 161.

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