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Characteristics of in Vivo Model Systems for Ovarian Cancer Studies

Center for Translational Research and Molecular Biology of Cancer, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute—Oncology Center, Gliwice Branch, , ul. Wybrzeże Armii Krajowej 15, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland
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Diagnostics 2019, 9(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9030120
Received: 14 August 2019 / Revised: 6 September 2019 / Accepted: 11 September 2019 / Published: 14 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ovarian Cancer: Characteristics, Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment)
An understanding of the molecular pathogenesis and heterogeneity of ovarian cancer holds promise for the development of early detection strategies and novel, efficient therapies. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of animal models available for basic and preclinical studies. The fruit fly model is suitable mainly for basic research on cellular migration, invasiveness, adhesion, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Higher-animal models allow to recapitulate the architecture and microenvironment of the tumor. We discuss a syngeneic mice model and the patient derived xenograft model (PDX), both useful for preclinical studies. Conditional knock-in and knock-out methodology allows to manipulate selected genes at a given time and in a certain tissue. Such models have built our knowledge about tumor-initiating genetic events and cell-of-origin of ovarian cancers; it has been shown that high-grade serous ovarian cancer may be initiated in both the ovarian surface and tubal epithelium. It is postulated that clawed frog models could be developed, enabling studies on tumor immunity and anticancer immune response. In laying hen, ovarian cancer develops spontaneously, which provides the opportunity to study the genetic, biochemical, and environmental risk factors, as well as tumor initiation, progression, and histological origin; this model can also be used for drug testing. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane is another attractive model and allows the study of drug response. View Full-Text
Keywords: ovarian cancer; in vivo model systems; Drosophila melanogaster; South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis; Xenopus tropicalis); syngeneic mice model; patient derived xenograft (PDX) model; genetically engineered mice; laying hen model; chic embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model ovarian cancer; in vivo model systems; Drosophila melanogaster; South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis; Xenopus tropicalis); syngeneic mice model; patient derived xenograft (PDX) model; genetically engineered mice; laying hen model; chic embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model
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Tudrej, P.; Kujawa, K.A.; Cortez, A.J.; Lisowska, K.M. Characteristics of in Vivo Model Systems for Ovarian Cancer Studies. Diagnostics 2019, 9, 120.

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