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Clinicopathological Spectrum of Bilirubin Encephalopathy/Kernicterus

Division of Neuropathology, University of Alberta and Stollery Children’s Hospital, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada
Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2019, 9(1), 24;
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Diseases)
PDF [2074 KB, uploaded 1 March 2019]


Bilirubin encephalopathy/kernicterus is relatively rare, but continues to occur despite universal newborn screening. What is more interesting is the spectrum of clinical and even neuropathological findings that have been reported in the literature to be associated with bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus. In this review, the authors discuss the array of clinicopathological findings reported in the context of bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus, as well as the types of diagnostic testing used in patients suspected of having bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus. The authors aim to raise the awareness of these features among both pediatric neurologists and neuropathologists. View Full-Text
Keywords: bilirubin encephalopathy; kernicterus; neurological symptoms; diagnosis; neuropathology bilirubin encephalopathy; kernicterus; neurological symptoms; diagnosis; neuropathology

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Das, S.; van Landeghem, F.K. Clinicopathological Spectrum of Bilirubin Encephalopathy/Kernicterus. Diagnostics 2019, 9, 24.

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