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Open AccessReview

Laboratory Diagnosis of Paratyphoid Fever: Opportunity of Surface Plasmon Resonance

1
Precision Medical Laboratory, Zahran, Amman 11183, Jordan
2
Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
3
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
4
Microbiology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Summit University Offa, Offa PMB 4412, Kwara State, Nigeria
5
Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
6
Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(7), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10070438
Received: 29 May 2020 / Revised: 18 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Paratyphoid fever is caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (A, B and C), and contributes significantly to global disease burden. One of the major challenges in the diagnosis of paratyphoid fever is the lack of a proper gold standard. Given the absence of a licensed vaccine against S. Paratyphi, this diagnostic gap leads to inappropriate antibiotics use, thus, enhancing antimicrobial resistance. In addition, the symptoms of paratyphoid overlap with other infections, including the closely related typhoid fever. Since the development and utilization of a standard, sensitive, and accurate diagnostic method is essential in controlling any disease, this review discusses a new promising approach to aid the diagnosis of paratyphoid fever. This advocated approach is based on the use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor and DNA probes to detect specific nucleic acid sequences of S. Paratyphi. We believe that this SPR-based genoassay can be a potent alternative to the current conventional diagnostic methods, and could become a rapid diagnostic tool for paratyphoid fever. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella Paratyphi; paratyphoid fever; bacterial detection; SPR; optical sensor; biosensor Salmonella Paratyphi; paratyphoid fever; bacterial detection; SPR; optical sensor; biosensor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alhaj-Qasem, D.M.; Al-Hatamleh, M.A.I.; Irekeola, A.A.; Khalid, M.F.; Mohamud, R.; Ismail, A.; Mustafa, F.H. Laboratory Diagnosis of Paratyphoid Fever: Opportunity of Surface Plasmon Resonance. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 438.

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