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Open AccessArticle

Using Machine Learning to Predict Bacteremia in Febrile Children Presented to the Emergency Department

1
Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833401, Taiwan
2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804201, Taiwan
3
Department of Emergency Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833401, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(5), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10050307
Received: 1 April 2020 / Revised: 8 May 2020 / Accepted: 13 May 2020 / Published: 15 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence in Diagnostics)
Blood culture is frequently used to detect bacteremia in febrile children. However, a high rate of negative or false-positive blood culture results is common at the pediatric emergency department (PED). The aim of this study was to use machine learning to build a model that could predict bacteremia in febrile children. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of febrile children who presented to the PED from 2008 to 2015. We adopted machine learning methods and cost-sensitive learning to establish a predictive model of bacteremia. We enrolled 16,967 febrile children with blood culture tests during the eight-year study period. Only 146 febrile children had true bacteremia, and more than 99% of febrile children had a contaminant or negative blood culture result. The maximum area under the curve of logistic regression and support vector machines to predict bacteremia were 0.768 and 0.832, respectively. Using the predictive model, we can categorize febrile children by risk value into five classes. Class 5 had the highest probability of having bacteremia, while class 1 had no risk. Obtaining blood cultures in febrile children at the PED rarely identifies a causative pathogen. Prediction models can help physicians determine whether patients have bacteremia and may reduce unnecessary expenses. View Full-Text
Keywords: machine learning; predict; bacteremia; children; emergency department machine learning; predict; bacteremia; children; emergency department
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsai, C.-M.; Lin, C.-H.R.; Zhang, H.; Chiu, I.-M.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Yu, H.-R.; Huang, Y.-H. Using Machine Learning to Predict Bacteremia in Febrile Children Presented to the Emergency Department. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 307.

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