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Article

Hypo-Expression of Flice-Inhibitory Protein and Activation of the Caspase-8 Apoptotic Pathways in the Death-Inducing Signaling Complex Due to Ischemia Induced by the Compression of the Asphyxiogenic Tool on the Skin in Hanging Cases

1
Department of Surgical Pathology, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area, Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa PI, Italy
2
IRCCS (Istituto di Ricerca e Cura a Carattere Scientifico) Neuromed Mediterranean Neurological Institute, Via Atinense 18, 86077 Pozzilli IS, Italy
3
Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopaedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome RM, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(11), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110938
Received: 21 October 2020 / Revised: 6 November 2020 / Accepted: 10 November 2020 / Published: 12 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in the Forensic Diagnosis)
The FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL) (55 kDa) is expressed in numerous tissues and most abundantly in the kidney, skeletal muscles and heart. The c-FLIPL has a region of homology with caspase-8 at the carboxy-terminal end which allows the molecule to assume a tertiary structure similar to that of caspases-8 and -10. Consequently, c-FLIPL acts as a negative inhibitor of caspase-8, preventing the processing and subsequent release of the pro-apoptotic molecule active form. The c-FLIP plays as an inhibitor of apoptosis induced by a variety of agents, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), T cell receptor (TCR), TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), Fas and death receptor (DR). Increased expression of c-FLIP has been found in many human malignancies and shown to be involved in resistance to CD95/Fas and TRAIL receptor-induced apoptosis. We wanted to verify an investigative protocol using FLIP to make a differential diagnosis between skin sulcus with vitality or non-vital skin sulcus in hanged subjects and those undergoing simulated hanging (suspension of the victim after murder). The study group consisted of 21 cases who died from suicidal hanging. The control group consisted of traumatic or natural deaths, while a third group consisted of simulated hanging cases. The reactions to the Anti-FLIP Antibody (Abcam clone-8421) was scored for each section with a semi-quantitative method by means of microscopic observation carried out with confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction. The results obtained allow us to state that the skin reaction to the FLIP is extremely clear and precise, allowing a diagnosis of unequivocal vitality and a very objective differentiation with the post-mortal skin sulcus. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunohistochemistry; c-FLIP; vitality; suicide; hanging immunohistochemistry; c-FLIP; vitality; suicide; hanging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maiese, A.; De Matteis, A.; Bolino, G.; Turillazzi, E.; Frati, P.; Fineschi, V. Hypo-Expression of Flice-Inhibitory Protein and Activation of the Caspase-8 Apoptotic Pathways in the Death-Inducing Signaling Complex Due to Ischemia Induced by the Compression of the Asphyxiogenic Tool on the Skin in Hanging Cases. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 938. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110938

AMA Style

Maiese A, De Matteis A, Bolino G, Turillazzi E, Frati P, Fineschi V. Hypo-Expression of Flice-Inhibitory Protein and Activation of the Caspase-8 Apoptotic Pathways in the Death-Inducing Signaling Complex Due to Ischemia Induced by the Compression of the Asphyxiogenic Tool on the Skin in Hanging Cases. Diagnostics. 2020; 10(11):938. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110938

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maiese, Aniello, Alessandra De Matteis, Giorgio Bolino, Emanuela Turillazzi, Paola Frati, and Vittorio Fineschi. 2020. "Hypo-Expression of Flice-Inhibitory Protein and Activation of the Caspase-8 Apoptotic Pathways in the Death-Inducing Signaling Complex Due to Ischemia Induced by the Compression of the Asphyxiogenic Tool on the Skin in Hanging Cases" Diagnostics 10, no. 11: 938. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110938

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